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Schwenkfelder hymnology and the 
sources of the first ... 

Allen Anders Seipt 


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New Sbriss 

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Literary, Linguistic and Otber Coltoral Relations 


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6. Philipp WaldecKs Diary of the American 

Revolution. With Introduction and Pho- 
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Learned. 168 pp. Price $1.50 

7. Schwenkfelder Hymnology and the Sources 

of the First Schwenkfelder Hymn-Book 
Printed in America, With Photographic 
Reproductions. By Allen Anders Seipt, 
Ph.D. 112 pp. Price $2.00 

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Title Page of the First Schwenkkelder Hvmn-Book Printed in America. 

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The Sources 


First Schwenkfelder Hymn-Book 
Printed in America 

Allen Anders Seipt, A.M., Ph.D. 

Member of the Historical Sociefy of Pennsylvania 
Formerly Instructor in German^ Ohio Wesley an University 



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This work is a contribution to a better knowledge of the 
activity of the Schwenkfelders in the writing and compiling of 
hymns, both in Europe and also in America. It is hoped that it 
will help to rescue from obscurity some of the worthy pioneers 
whose services in this field have long waited for acknowledg- 
ment. To students of the life of the German settlers in America, 
during the colonial period, it should prove a welcome side-light. 

An altogether satisfactory explanation of both the character 
and the quantity of the religious poetry written by the early 
Schwenkfelders is furnished by Koch. It runs thus: "They 
were wholly devoted to a deep susceptibility of the grace of God, 
intent upon this, in order that they might the better in faith 
apprehend the inner working of grace. With such spiritual sen- 
sibility, and being perpetually the victims of oppression, they had 
so much the greater occasion for communion with God and for 
the pouring out of their hearts before Him in prayer and song. 
Hence it was, that a distinct Schwenkfeldian type of religious 
poetry developed, quite extensive and not to be undervalued in its 

Public acknowledgment is due the following for having 
rendered assistance during the preparation of this work : Marion 
D. Learned, Ph. D., L. H. D., Professor of German at the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, for directing the author's research ; Prof. 
D. B. Shumway, Ph. D., of the University of Pennsylvania; Hon. 
S. W. Pennypacker, LL. D., Former Governor of Pennsylvania, 
for the use of important sources; M. G. Brumbaugh, Ph. D., LL. 
D., Superintendent of Schools, Philadelphia ; Prof. Morris Jas- 
trow, Jr., Ph. D. ; Dr. John W. Jordan, Librarian, and Mr. 
Ernest Spoflford, Assistant Librarian, of the Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania; Mr. Thomas L. Montgomery, Librarian, Mr. 
Norman D. Gray, Assistant Librarian, and Mr. Luther Kelker, 
Archivist, of the State Library, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; C. S. 


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Thayer, Ph. D., Librarian of Hartford Theological Seminary, 
Hartford, Connecticut; Mr. George Maurice Abbot, Librarian of 
the Library Company of Philadelphia, and Mr. B. Samuel, of the 
Ridgway Branch; Pres. Robert Ellis Thompson, D. D., Central 
High School, Philadelphia; Rev. J. H. Dubbs, D. D., LL. D., 
Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Rev. 
C. D. Hartranft, D. D., Wolfenbuttel, Germany; Hon. C. Hey- 
drick, Franklin, Pennsylvania; Howard Wiegner Kriebel, Lititz, 
Pennsylvania; Rev. O. S. Kriebel, D. D., Pennsburg, Pennsyl- 
vania; Rev. E. E. S. Johnson, Wolfenbuettel, Germany; Mrs. 
Susanna Krauss Heebner, Worcester, Pennsylvania; Samuel A. 
Anders, Professor of German, Temple University, Philadelphia; 
and Irene Schumo Seipt, of Philadelphia. 

The Author. 
Philadelphia, April 1909. 

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Chapter I. — ^Introduction 1 1 

Chapter II. — Descriptive Bibliography 17 

Chapter III. — ^The Schwenkfelder Hymn-Writers of the 

i6th and 17th Centuries 37 

Chapter IV. — Hymns Used by the Schwenkf elders Before 

1762 56 

Chapter V. — Caspar Weiss: The Originator of the 

Schwenkfelder Hymn-Bode 61 

Chapter VI. — George Weiss: Writer and Compiler of 

Hymns 74 

Chapter VII. — Balthaser Hoffmann, Christopher Hoff- 
mann and Hans Christoph Huebner. . . 83 

Chapter VIII. — Christopher Schultz and the Printed 

Hymn-Book '. 96 

Appendix. — Bibliography in 

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Up to this time, the American field of Schwenkfelder hymn- 
ology appears to have been permitted to lie unworked and even 
uncleared ; so that the present investigation has demanded pioneer 
effort. The explanation of this fact can readily be furnished. 
Until recent years, the sources which have made the present treat- 
ise possible were in the private possession of numerous individuals 
and of households of the sect, and hence were, for the most part, 
both inaccessible and unknown to the investigator. However, 
patient searching has brought to light much material relating to 
the production, transcribing, compiling and editing of hymns of 
Schwenkfelder authorship — ^the activity of the Schwenkfelders in 
the writing and collecting of h3rmns having extended from the 
first half of the sixteenth to the second half of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, a period of more than three hundred years. This material 
consists chiefly of manuscript sources hitherto unpublished, and is 
therefore of prime importance for a documentary account of the 
hymnology of the sect. The most important of the historical 
manuscripts exploited in the preparation of this work will be found 
printed with the text — care having been exercised to permit no 
deviation from the orthography employed by the chronicler. 
These citations are in most cases given in English translation also. 
The specimen hymns printed or reprinted are provided with foot- 
notes explaining dialectal and obsolete forms. The illustrations 
will be found to include photographic reproductions indicating 
those manuscript compilations which served as sources for the 
first hymn-book of the sect printed in America. 

The few brief notices which have thus far appeared, of the 
activity of the Schwenkfelders in the writing and compiling of 
hymns, have not been overlooked. In 1882, there appeared in the 
Reformed Quarterly Review an article entitled "Early German 
H3rmnology of Pennsylvania," which contains an account of the 


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Schwenkf elder hymn-book of 1762.^ In 1898, the Americana 
Germanica published a treatise on the subject of German hymn- 
ology in America, in which the writer confines his account of 
Schwenkf elder hymn-writing to the following brief mention:^ 
"Other sects, such as the Schwenkf elders, who came to Pennsyl- 
vania in 1734, may be passed over with the mere mention. The 
hymn-book of the Schwenkfelders, known as the NeU'eingerichte- 
tes Gesanghuch, left Saur's press in 1762; it contains no h)mins 
written in this country, but is interesting for its scholarly preface 
and excellent arrangement." 

In the course of the present work, however, it will be seen 
that Schwenkf elder hymnology is entitled to more than mere men- 
tion, and that the statement, "it contains no h)mins written in this 
country," is certainly without foundation. In 1904 appeared the 
Schwenkfelders in Pennsylvania, a historical study of the 
Schwenkfelders since their exodus from Saxony.^ This contains 
a partial list of the Schwenkfelder hymn-writers whose hymns 
were admitted into the hymn-book printed in 1762. But all these 
references to the hymn-book in question merely suggest that 
Schwenkfelder h3minology holds a place in the hymnology of the 

The larger works on hymnology have also been consulted. 
In Julian,^ but two Schwenkfelder hymn-writers receive mention. 
They are Adam Reissner and Sebastian Franck. Even Danid 
Sudermann is not named. Koch*^ distinguishes two schools of 
Schwenkfelder hymn-writers, namely, that of the Reformation 
period and a post-Reformation school. He treats a total of eight 
authors. We have already observed, in our preface, that Koch 

*The article was written by the Rev. J. H. Dubbs, D.D., LL.D. Since 
reprinted. This account is quoted in our fast chapter. 

"William A. Haussmann: German American Hymnology (1683-1800). 
Americana Germanica, Vol. II, No. 3. 

•Howard Wiegner Kriebel: The Schwenkfelders in Pennsylvania: A 
Historical Sketch. Lancaster, 1904. 

*JoHN Julian: A Dictionary of Hymnology, New York, i8p2. 

•Emil Koch: Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs. Stutt- 
gart i866-i87i6. 

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recognizes a well-defined Schwenkfeldian type of hymn-writing 
and cheerfully concedes to it a raison d'etre. But his account of 
the Schwenkf elder hymn-writers terminates with 1631, the year 
of Sudermann's death. Wackemagel^ describes very fully the 
Schwenkfelder hymns of the period which he treats, but he dis- 
cusses only the writers up to Sudermann inclusive, and his ac- 
cotmt is not biographical. Schneider's monograph'^ likewise closes 
with an account of the h3rmns of Daniel Sudermann. Indeed, 
both Wackemagel and Koch frankly acknowledge their indebted- 
ness to Schneider for much of their information concerning the 
early h)min-writers of the school of Schwenkfeld. 

It will be seen thus, that none of these authorities approach- 
es the period with which the present treatise is particularly con- 
cerned. It is the purpose of this monograph (i) to present a 
survey of the entire field of Schwenkfelder h3annology, and (2) 
to submit the results of an examination of certain compilations of 
hymns extant in manuscript. The collections in question are 
those brought to America by the Schwenkf elders in 1734, to- 
gether with the rearrangements and transcriptions of them produc- 
ed here. Documentary sources have been employed almost exclu- 
sively, and with but one exception, the writer has enjoyed the use 
of the originals of the several hymn-collections examined. The 
hymn-book issued from the press of Christopher Saur has, of 
course, received attention ; but no minute analysis of this imprint 
has been attempted. It will frequently be referred to as the "Saur 
edition." The second and third editions of the printed hymnal 
are merely listed in our Descriptive Bibliog^phy. Each is es- 
sentially an abridgment of the edition which preceded it. 

In an address delivered before the Pennsylvania-German 
Society on the occasion of its first annual meeting, October 1891, 
Hon. Samuel W. Pennypacker, Former Governor of Pennsyl- 

•Philipp Wackernagel: Das deutsche Kirchenlied von den aeltesten 
Zeittn bis zu Anfang des ijten Jahrhunderts, 5 vols. Leipzig, 1864-1877. 

• A. R H. Schitbider: Zur Literatur der Schwenkf eldischen Lieder- 
dichter bis Daniel Sudermann, Berlin, 1857. 

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vania, made the following reference to the results which the 
Schwenkfelders have accomplished in the transcribing of their 
own literature: "I want to call your attention to another sect, 
the Schwenkfelders who came to Pennsylvania. They were the 
followers of Caspar Schwenkf eld and the doctrines taught by him 
were almost identical with those taught by the Quakers. They 
came in 1734. Their literature was extensive and interesting 
It is reproduced for the most part in huge folios written upon 
paper made at the Rittenhouse paper-mill on the Wissahickon, the 
earliest in America. These volumes sometimes contained a 
thousand pages, boimd in stamped leather with brass comers and 
brass mounting. Among the notable facts connected with 
their history is the fact that they prepared a written description 
of all the writings of Schwenkfeld and their other authors and 
it is as far as I know the first attempt at a bibliography in this 

The early history of the Schwenkfelders furnishes the ex- 
planation of this extraordinary activity in the copying of both 
their printed works as well as unpublished manuscripts. Repeat- 
edly, the literature of the sect was proscribed and the use of the 
press forbidden them, so that for the preservation of the works 
of their various writers they were dependent upon their transcrib- 
ers. Of this activity, the collecting and copying of hymns has 
always been a considerable part, and in our next chapter we list 
bibliographically the numerous larger collections of h3rmns which 
are still extant in manuscript and are products of the patient toil 
of Schwenkf elder transcribers. Furthermore, we shall see that 
some of the h3min-writers themselves served the sect as copyists. 
Thus Adam Reissner and Daniel Sudermann compiled large folios 
of hymns written by their own hands. A century later Caspar 
Weiss produced a compilation of hymns in two volumes in manu- 
script, in which he has perpetuated hymns written by Adam 
Reissner, Daniel Sudermann, Raimund Weckher, Valentin Trill- 
er, Antonius Oelsner, George Heydrich, Martin John, Jr., and 
other Schwenkfelder hymn-writers. Again, George Weiss 

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subjected the collection of Caspar Weiss, his father, to a 
rearrangement and added more than 500 hymns of Schwenkfeld- 
er authorship. It is also noteworthy that this activity did not 
cease with the emigration of the sect from the Fatherland. The 
present writer has thus far examined six folios besides numerous 
quartos and a great variety of additional collections arranged for 
church use, all of which were compiled or transcribed in America. 
The extant manuscript hymn-bodes arranged for household use 
(Taegliche Gesangbuecher) are also numerous. It has been the 
writer's good fortune to unearth a number of important collec- 
tions of hymns in manuscript and it is not unlikely that others 
exist which will yet be discovered. We should, therefore, not 
lose sight of the fact that the great mass of transcriptions— of 
hymns, of sermons, of historical matter and of other literature — 
produced by the Schwenkfelders in America represents the sur- 
vival of the laborious work of transcribing which originated in 
Europe more than two hundred years before, when printers were 
forbidden to do press-work for the Schwenkfelders. Necessity 
was the mother of the device, and in this way for a period of 
more than two centuries preceding the emigration to America, 
copies of the Schwenkfeld prints which had been saved from 
seizure were multiplied, and both their earlier and their contem- 
poraneous literature preserved. 

Investigation has revealed the further fact that three col- 
lections of h)mMis served as the principal manuscript sources of 
the Schwenkf elder hymn-book of 1762, familiarly known as the 
'*Saur edition." The collections in question form a connected 
series, beginning with the compilation of Caspar Weiss, which 
was completed in 1709. Hence, the first Schwenkf elder hymn- 
book printed in America was in part the result of a line of activity 
in the compiling of hymns, which began at the very opening of 
the i8th century, about 60 years before. The additional fact has 
also been disclosed that this continued activity is marked from 
its beginning to its close by a well-defined progression, — each 
compiler after the originator, having operated with the completed 

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work of his predecessor as a basis. The series of collections 
comprising the extent of this activity consists therefore, essentially 
of four compilations of hymns, each r^^larly edited, although 
the first three collections of the series were never issued in print- 
ed form. Moreover, and singularly enough, the effort represented 
by this activity was confined to four families of the sect : Caspar 
Weiss of Harpersdorf , in Silesia, and the Rev. George Weiss, his 
son; the Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann and his son, the Rev. Christo- 
pher Hoffmann; Hans Christoph Huebner, and the Rev. Chris- 
topher Schultz. With the exception of Caspar Weiss, who died 
in Silesia before the emigration to Saxony, all were immi- 
grants to America. George Weiss, Balthaser Hoffmann and 
Christopher Schultz were writers of hymns. And not only to 
Rev. Christopher Schultz as editor, but to each one of these com- 
pilers must be conceded a share in the credit for the ultimate pro- 
diKt, the Neu^eingerichtetes Gesangbuch of 1762. 

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Descriptive Bibliography.* 

This descriptive bibliographical list includes only collections 
of hymns, manuscript and printed. The compiler or author is in 
every instance a Schwenkfelder. Early German religious prints 
other than hymn-books not infrequently contained a few hymns; 
and a number of hymns of Schwenkfelder authorship were first 
published separately in this manner. But such prints are not 
included in this list. Likewise, collections which contain 
Schwenkfelder hymns but are not Schwenkfelder compilations 
are excluded. The list affords a survey of the activity of the 
sect in the writing as well as in the collecting and arrangfing of 
hymns for devotional use, privately and in their meetings for 
worship. The numbers in this bibliography marked thus (*) 
are the collections in folio and quarto which served as sources for 
the "Saur edition," and include both the original manuscripts and 
the transcriptions of them which are known to exist. All titles 
are reproduced in German, with their original orthography. The 
description of all the numbers in the list is given in English. 
Those numbers which are not described as "manuscript** are col- 
lections which have been issued in print 

I. 1546. 

EiN New Lied | Auff Sebastian Coccius | Schulmaistcrs zu 
Hall Schmach- | biichlen, die er wider die Herrlichait | Christi hat 
geschriben. | Im thon | O das ich kund von hcrtzen. | Oder | Ich 
stund an einem morgen. | Raimund Weckher. | 1546. 

Octavo. 14 pages. Contains the hymn : Ein vogel ist aussge- 
flogen. The hymn consists of 31 strophes of 7 lines. It is a polemic 
in defense of the doctrine of Schwenkfeld. Preceding the hymn is 
an "Exhortation to the Reader'* in rhymed couplets. (Royal Li- 
brary, Dresden.) 

•Compare: Schneider, loco citato, pp. 12-18. Wackernagel, Vol. I, part 
II. Koch, Vol. II. ^ ^ 


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II. 1565. 

EiN New Lied | Ausz der Histori | Eusebij | Von den zehen 
verfol- I gungen, Vnd zerstorung des | Christenthumbs. | Mehr | 
Ein Lied vom Reich des Antichrists, j Vnd von plagen vber die 
argen welt. | (4 lines) | A. R. | (5 lines) | Getruckt zu Strasburg | 
bey Thiebolt Berger. 

Octavo. 30 pages. Contains the following three hymns : 
In alten gschichten gschriben staht, 
Nu hort mir zu in meim gedicht, 
Herr Jhcsu Christe starker Gott. 

The first hymn consists of 34 strophes of 13 lines. The second 
is in 10 strophes of 13 lines. The third is in 19 strophes of 5 lines. 
Of the first two, Adam Reissner is the author. The third is prob- 
ably not from his pen. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

III. 1565. 

Ein schon Lied, Von der | Ruten vnd Kinder zucht. Im thon, 
I Ich stundt an einem morgen. | Allen Eltem vnd Kindem, sher 
niitz I vnd not, in disen zeiten zu singen. 

Octavo. 7 pages. Contains the hymn: Ein Liedlein wil ich 
dichten, Zu lob der Ruten gut. It is in 18 strophes of 7 lines. The 
sentiment of the hymn is that of the proverb: "Spare the rod and 
spoil the child." The author is Alexander Heldt. (Royal Library, 

IV. 1570. 

Ein schon neuw Lied, | Von der tugent vnnd krafTt | der 
Ruten, zur wamung den Eltern, | die jhren Kindem den zaum zu | 
lang lassen, vnd sie in jrer | jugent nicht straflFen. | (3 lines) | 
Gedruckt zu Basel, am Fischmarckt, durch | Daniel vnd Lienhart 

Octavo. 6 pages. A new edition of the hymn of Alexander 
Heldt on the training of children. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

V. 1587. 

Geistliche Lieder. I Daniel Suderman. | Die Kinder diser 
Welt sind Kluger den die Kinder des | liechts, in Irem ge- 

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schlecht. Luc. XVI. Aber, Gott forchten | ist die volkomne 
Weiszheit. Eccl. I. Gott forchten ist weit | vber alles. Eccl. 
XXV. Gott forchten, vnd vor augen haben ist | weiszheit, 
vnd vom bosen weichen, ist verstand. Job. XXVIII. | Singend ein 
lobgesang, Lobend Gott vber alle seine Werck, | Gebend dem Herrn 
Herrligkeit vnd eehr, veriahend sein lob mitt | euweren lafftzen, Ja 
mit den gsang euwerer lafftzen, mit den | Harpffen, vnd seitenspilen 
Eccl. XXXIX. Leerend vnd erma- | nend euch selbs mit gesangen 
vnd geistlichen liederen, in der gnad, | vnd singend dem herren in 
euwerem hertzen. Col. 3. | Zu Straszburg, Im BruderhoflF. | 1587. 
Manuscript in folio. Will be designated as Si in the list of 
Sudermann collections included in our discussion of this hymn- 
writer in the next chapter. 538 pages. Chronologically, this is the 
first collection of Sudermann's hymns. The author is also the com- 
piler. It contains a number of his very earliest compositions, written 
in the years 1572 ff. Every hymn is furnished with corrections sup- 
plied in Sudermann's own hand about 30 years after the engrossing 
of the manuscript. The succession of poems is occasionally inter- 
rupted by passages from St. Jerome, St. Chrysostom, St. Augustine 
and other Church Fathers, in French translation. (Royal Library, 

VI. 1596. 

Teglichs Gesangbuch. I Wejches Der Gottsgelehrt Aureli- | 
us Prudentius, Consul zu Rom, | vor Tausendt Jaren geschriben, j 
Und ieczt verteuscht worden. | Auch anndere newe Lieder auss 
Heiliger | schrifft alien Christglaubigen zu irem | Hayl Dienstlich 
durch. I Adam Reusner | Ephes : V. | Jr solt erfult werden im Gaist, 
mitt Euch selbs | Reden inn Psalmen, Lobsangen und gaistlichen 
Lied- I ern, Singen vnnd Psalliern in Ewernn Hercz- | en, Dem 
Herren immer Danckhsagen fiber | alles im Namen vnsers Herren 
Jesu Christi. 

Manuscript in folio. 734 pages. This is a compilation consist- 
ing of (i) hymns written by Adam Reissner, and (2) hymns col- 
lected by Reissner from other Schwenkfelder writers. The next 
number in this series has many hymns in common with this manu- 
script. The collection comprises six distinct sections, with a sep- 
arate title-page for each section. The titles of the successive sec- 
tions are included in this account. The first section comprises Reiss- 

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ncr's translations of the Latin hymns of Aurelius Prudentius. Fol- 
lowing we reproduce the title-page of the second section : 

Neuwe Gsanng I in Biiechem Mosech prophe- | ten vnnd 
Psalmen aus Hay- | liger Schrifft verfaszt. | Zum Erkandtnus 
vnnsers Herren | IHESV CHRISTI, vnnd jderman | zur besse- 
rung vnnd zur Selig- | kait dienstlich. | Inn gsanng verfasst. | Durch. 
I A: R: I Die gaistliche gesang eruordem ein glau- | big Hercz. 
PROVERB : 25 : Wie ein Zer- | riszen Klaid im tag der Kelte, vnnd | 
essich vff der Creiden, Also ist ei- | ner Der Psalmen singt mit Ei- | 
nem Boszen Herczenn. 

All the hymns of this section are by Adam Reissner. They 
include many of his metrical versions of the Psalms. Following is 
the title of the third section: 

Heilige Gsangg Aus dem | Neuen Testament nach dem | Text 
der Evangelisten vonn der Neu- | en empfengkhnus geburt, wunder 
I werckhen Leiden und sterben vnd | aufferstehung des Sohns Gottes 

This is the largest of the six divisions of the collection. Of 
most of the hymns of this section, Adam Reissner is only the col- 
lector.- Of a few he is also the author. The title of the fourth 
section follows: 

VoN Abendmal I DES HERREN. | Vom figurlichen Opfer 
Fest PASCHA | vom Opfer Lamb vnd was es bedeutet hab. | 
Durch I A.R. 

Six hymns on the Lord's Supper and the Atonement. The first 
is unquestionably by Reissner. The authorship of the others is un- 
certain. Following we reproduce in part the fifth title-page : 

Geistliche Gsang I Ausz Hailiger Geschrifft | Das Christus 
bald komen werd zurichten. 






This title-page bears the date 1596. This is also the date of the 
next number in this series. This section contains hymns on the 
Judgment. The brief title of the last section is as follows : 

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Hernach folgen Gesanng, Wie I sich ein mensch in Ver- 
Hchner gnad Christi auf sein Zukonnfft berai- | ten mechte. 

This part of the collection contains chiefly hymns on the Second 
Coming of Christ. The orthography of this manuscript seems to 
point to Strassburg. It contains a total of 175 hymns. Of these, 
44 are tmquestionably, and 10 others possibly, by Adam Reissner. 
All the hymns of this collection are presumably of Schwenkfelder 
authorship.^ (Herzogliche Bibliothek, Wolfenbiittel.) 

VII. 1596. 

A: PRVDENTII DIVRNAL. | Taglichs Gsangbuch | welches 
Prudentius vor Tausend Jaren | beschrieben, Auss dem Latein | 
verteiitscht. | durch, | A: Reiszner. | Durch | Daniel Sudermann. j 
Anno 1596, I zu Strassburg geschrieben, | vnnd gemehret. 

Manuscript in folio. 572 pages. In this collection and in the 
collection which we have just described, most of the hymns by 
Adam Reissner have been preserved. This manuscript, like the pre- 
ceding, contains hymns by various Schwenkfelder writers in addition 
to those by Reissner. The compiler of this collection was the dis- 
tinguished Schwenkfelder and prolific hymn-writer Daniel Suder- 
mann, in whose hand the entire manuscript is neatly engrossed. The 
first division of the volume embraces those translations of the Latin 
hymns of Prudentius contained in the preceding number, here re- 
arranged. Then a new title-page, as follows : 

PRVDENTII ENCHIRIDION. | Eua Columba fuit, tum Can- 
dida nigra deinde. | Kleine Bibel. | Namen vnnd wunderge- 
schichten dess Alten | vnnd Newen Testaments. 

This part of th^ collection ^comprises a translation of the 
Enchiridion, or handbook of devotions, of Aurelius Prudentius. It 
is the enlargement indicated on the title-page of the book. Who 
translated these Latin hymns, we are not told. Again a new title, 
as follows: 

Gsangbuch | Newer geistlicher Lieder | Zum erkantnus 
des Heilmachers Jhesu | Christi, vnd Jederman Zur besserung 
dienstlich. | Auch | Darin die gmeine Irrthumb vnd | abgotterey dcr 
Welt entdeckt I werden. 

* Cf. Wackemagel, loco citato. Vol. I, p. 591. 

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This section is supplied with a preface by Sudermann, possibly 
indicating that he intended to have these hymns published in the 
form of a hymn-book. From this preface, as well as from the title 
and the passages of Scripture which follow it, we may assume (i) 
that these hymns were gathered from Schwenkfelder writers only 
and (2) that the collection was prepared in defense of the position 
of the Schwenkfelders with regard to the Lord's Supper. This 
manuscript contains 117 hymns. It closes with the following verses :* 

Zu Christi lob, Glori vnd preisz, 

Auch Ehr, hab ich diss Buch, mit vleisz, 

Zusammen bracht: Gebenedeyt, 

Der an den tag brengt, solche warheit: 

Verbannet auch dagegen sey, 

Ders noch entfrembd, vnd nit last frey, 

Oder, ausz Neyd, zumal verdirbt : 

Gott such Ihn heim, ehe dan er stirbt. 

D. S. 
VIII. 1597. 

Geistliche Lieder. I Zur Ermanung vnnd anhaltung, trieb, 
vnd vbung, | Das man Im Hauss Gottes nit schlafferig seye : | Son- 
der allzeit Wachen, betten, vnd ermanen soil. | I. Teil. | Die Kinder 
diser Welt seind Kliiger dan die Kinder | des liechts In Ihrem ge- 
schlecht. Luc. : 16. Aber Gott | forchten vnd vor augen haben ist 
Weiszheit, vnnd vom | bosen weichen, ist verstand. Job : 28. Gott 
forchten ist | Die volkomme Weissheit. Eccl: i. Gott forchten ist 
weit I vber alles. Eccl : 25. | Ihr sollends ihm nit verbieten : Wer 
nit ist wider vns, | Der ist fur vns. Marc: 9. I. Cor: 12 a. Dan 
der einig Geist wiirckt | alles, vnd theilt einem Jeglichen seines zu, 
nach dem Er will &c. | I. Cor : 14. Coloss : 3. | Psallierend in ewerm 
hertzen dem herren, lehrend vnd erinnert | ein ander, mit Psalmen, 
Gesangen vnd geistlichen Hedern, Singet | in der gnad jn ewerm 
hertzen. | Durch, | Daniel Suderman zu Strassburg &c. | sein Erste 
vbung &c. 

Manuscript in folio. 1071 pages. Will be designated hereafter 
as Si I of the Sudermann collections. Chronologically, it is the 
second collection of hymns by Daniel Sudermann. Most of these 

* Cf. Wackernagel, loco citato, Vol. I, p. 596. 

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hymns were written in the period 1588 — 1597. They number in the 
aggregate 558. However, the collection contains hymns which were 
admitted from manuscript Si, so that they were not all new hymns. 
Of the hynms which this collection comprises, 26 have appeared in 
print. Of these, some had been printed before the completion of 
the collection. In the years 1605 and 1606, the Prussian composer 
Hans Schults copied from this volume a considerable number of 
hymns which he set to music. According to a note contained in 
the manuscript, this collection originally comprised two volumes. 
Of the companion volume (H. Theil) the writer has nowhere else 
found mention. It is probably no longer extant. Most of the hymns 
contained in this collection were admitted into the three volumes 
which constitute the next three numbers in this series — a manuscript 
hymn-book in three Parts, quarto. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

IX. 1615. 

GsANGBUCH, Newer geistlicher | Lieder. | Zum erkandniis des 
Heylmachers Jesu Christj, | Fur die Newe, von oben heraber wider- 
I geborne Kinder Gottes, wie geschrieben | stehet. Esa : 54. Joh : 3. 
6. Deine Kin- | der werden alle von Gott gelert sein, | Wer es 
nun horet von meinem vatter, | und lernt es, Der kompt zu mir &c. 
I I. Theil. I 1st etwan ein newe Creatur, In Christo, | So ist das alt 
vergangen, Sihe Ich | machs alles New. 2. Cor: 5. | Es ist AUes 
New worden. Apoc: 21. | Der Naturlich Mensch vemimpt nichts 
vom I Geist Gottes, es ist im eine thorheit, vnd | kan es nicht er- 
kennen, Denn es muss geistlich | gerichtet sein. I. Cor : 2. | Durch 
Daniel Sudermann. 

Manuscript in quarto. 1044 pages. This is the first of three 
volumes which constitute chronologically the third collection of Su- 
dermann hymns. We shall designate these volumes Siiia, S1116 
and Siiic respectively. The collection was probably completed 1615 
— possibly later. Immediately preceding the hymns is an extension 
of the title, from which it appears that Sudermann intended at this 
time to issue in printed form a complete collection of his hymns. 
About one-third of the space of the first volume is devoted to hymns 
for children, with such marginal notes as "Kinderlieder" and "Zur 
kinder leer." The total of hymns in this volume is 780, of which 
39 have appeared in print. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

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X. 1615. 

GsANGBUCH. I Newer geistlicher Lieder | Zur ermanung vnnd 
anhaltung, trieb, | vnd vbung, Das man jm hauss | Gottes nit 
schlafferig seye ; Sonder | allezeit wachen, beten vnd ermanen soil. | 
11. Theil. * * * Durch Daniel Suderman. 

Manuscript in quarto. loio pages. This is collection S111& 
of the Sudermann hymns. The date is the same as that of the pre- 
ceding nimiber. It contains a smaller number of "Kinderlieder" 
than the first volume. Passages from the Scriptures, the Church 
Fathers and the mystics Eckhart and Tauler, are numerous. There 
are also two hymns copied from the writings of Tauler, given with 
the text normalized by Sudermann. The hymns in this volume 
number 376. 38 have appeared in print. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

XL 1615. 

GsANGBUCH, I Newer geistlicher | Lieder. | Zum Erkantnus 
desz Einigen wahren | Gottes, vnd vnsers Herren Jesu Christi, | den 
Er gesendet hat, welches dz Ewige leben ist. Johan, 17. | IIL Theil. 

Manuscript in quarto. 11 34 pages. This is the third part of 
Sudermann's "Gsangbuch, Newer geistlicher Lieder.'' We shall 
designate it as Sine. The date is 1615 (circa). This volume con- 
tains 1 107 hymns, of which about 40 have been printed. (Royal 
Library, Berlin.) 

The three volumes which we have just discussed are composed 
of (i) hymns copied from the two folio volumes. Si and Sii, of 
Sudermann h)rmns, and (2) new hymns written in the years 1600 — 
1615 (circa). Those transcribed from the two earlier collections 
were in many cases revised at this time. No one of the three vol- 
umes of this hymn-book contains an index of first lines. 

XIL 1618. 

VoN DER TocHTER SioN, | Das ist : I Von der begnadeten | 
liebhabenden glaubigen Seel, wel- | che von jhrem Gemahel Jesu 
Christo, I mit Hebe vbersich von alien Jrrdischen Crea- | turen, ge- 
zogen, ergriflFen, vnd zu wahrer | Gottlicher erkantnus vnd jhr sel- | 
ber kommen ist. | Durch D. S. | Bey Jacob von der Heyden Cal- 
coGRAPHUM. I Anno 1618. 

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Octavo. 32 pages. Contains the following three hymns: 
Ein Tochter Jung, von Sion her, 
Gott sey gelobt, in ewigkeit, 
Liebende Seel, welche nun bist. 

The first is in rh)mied couplets. The second is in 22 strophes 
of 8 lines. The third is in 7 strophes of 8 lines. We shall desig- 
nate it as Siv in our list of collections of Sudermann hymns. (Her- 
zogliche Bibliothek, Wolfenbuttel.) 

XIII. 1619. 

Ein gute Lehr, | Wie die Christliche Jungfra- | wen, das ist, 
die liebhabende glaubi- | ge Seele, ein Geistlicher wolbewarter 
Blum- I men gartlein, in jhren hertzen pflantzen soUen. * * ♦ | 
D. S. I Bey Jacob von der Heyden Calco- | graphum Anno 1619. 

Octavo. 16 pages. Will hereafter be designated as Sv. This 
print contains four didactic poems in rhymed couplets, and the 

Hort jhr lieben Jungfra wen, 
in 17 strophes of 8 lines. (Herzogliche Bibliothek, Wolfenbiittel.) 

XIV. 1619. 

Five Leaves in Folio with Didactic Poems by Daniel Suder- 

Will hereafter be designated as Svi. There are five poems, 
typographed. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

XV. 1620. 

Schone ausserlesene Figuren vnd hohe Lehren von der | 
Begnadeten Liebhabenden Seele, Nem- | lich der Christlichen Kir- 
chen vnd jhre | Gemahl Jesu Christo. | Zum theyl ausz dem hohen 
Lied Salomouis, wie auch ausz der alten | Christlichen Kirchenleh- 
rem Schrifften gezogen, vnd in | Teutsche Reymen verfaszt. j 
Durch D. S. 

This is the first of four related collections of hymns by Daniel 
Sudermann which will hereafter be designated as Sviia^ Sviifr, Sviic 
and Sviid, respectively. This series of publications is extraordinary 
with regard to both content and the character of the imprints. Each 

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number in the series consists of 50 leaves in folio printed from en- 
graved copper-plates. The arrangement in the case of each plate is 
as follows: First, a heading; under it a symbolic illustration, in 
form rectangular ; under this, a poem. Beside and below the poem 
are passages of Scripture or excerpts from the mystics. Illustra- 
tion and poem interpret these passages. At the bottom of the plate 
are the initials "D. S." and the engraver's mark. A few copies of 
these rare imprints have been preserved by the Schwenkfelders in 
America. Of the first number there is a copy in the Royal Library, 
Berlin, and one in the Herzogliche Bibliothek at Wolfenbuttel. It 
was printed at Strassburg, 1620. 

XVI. 1620. 


sen, Erklarungen Gebettlein vnd hohe | lehr. | Durch D. S. | Ge- 
druckt bey Jacob von der Heyden Kupferstecher. 

The second collection in the series under discussion. Will here- 
after be designated as Sviifr. Printed at Strassburg, 1620. (Royal 
Library, Berlin, and Herzogliche Bibliothek, Wolfenbiittel.) 

XVII. 1622. 

EiN SCHONE Lehr^ von den sieben Graden, | oder Staffeln der 
volkommenen Liebe, in denen die Gesponsz | Christi wandeln soil, 
Anno 1489. beschrieben, vnd jetzt | von Wort zu Wort in Druck ge- 
geben, durch D. S. | M. DC. XXII. 

Folio. 12 pages. This is a treatise on perfect love. It contains 
(i) an essay written 1489 by Heinrich Vigilis von Weissenburg and 
found in manuscript form by Sudermann; (2) an enumeration of 
24 "marks" of divine love, culled from the writings of Eckhard and 
Tauler; (3) the following hymn by Sudermann: 

Ein Mensch aufFs new geboren schon, 

in 12 strophes of 4 lines. Will hereafter be designated as Sviii. 
(Royal Library, Berlin.) 

XVIII. 1622. 

Twelve Leaves in Folio with Religious Poems by Daniel Su- 

The second page of each leaf is blank. The arrangement of the 

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printed pages is essentially the same as in the case of numbers XV., 
XVI., XXII. and XXIV. of this bibliography — the series consisting 
of symbolic illustrations with interpretations in verse, printed from 
copper-plates. These leaves are typographed. They contain 12 
poems, of which 9 are in rhymed couplets. This collection will here- 
after be designated as Six. (Royal Library, Berlin, and Herzog- 
liche Bibliothek, Wolfenbuttel.) 

XIX. 1622. 

HoHE GEiSTREiCHE Lehren, vnd | Erklarungeu : | Vber die 
fumembsten Spruche desz | Hohen Lieds Salomonis, von der Lieb- 
habenden Seele, das ist, der Christlichen Kirchen vnd jhrem | 
Gemahl Jesu Christo. | * * * | Durch D. S. | * * * Ge- 
druckt zu Franckfurt bey Eberhardt Kieser, | In verlegung Jacobs 
von der Heyden, | Chalcograph : Anno | M. DC. XXII. 

Folio. 68 leaves. In point of arrangement, this imprint is a 
slight variation from the Sudermann collections printed from cop- 
per-plates. In this collection the purely didactic poems are more 
numerous than the hymns. There are 23 hymns, of which three had 
already been published in collection Siv. This collection will here- 
after be designated as Sx. (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

XX. 1625. 

Hymns and Religious Poems by Daniel Sudermann on Char- 
ity and Malevolence, Harmony and Discord, Peace and War. 

Folio. 16 pages, with no collective title. There are 18 poems, 
of which 8 are arranged for use as hymns. This collection will 
hereafter be designated as Sxi. (Herzogliche Bibliothek, Wolfen- 

XXI. 1625. 

ScHONE auszerlesne Sinnreiche Figuren. I Durch D. S. | 
Der III theil. | Gedruckt bey Johan Erhard Wagner. 

The third collection in the series printed from copper-plates. 
Will hereafter be designated as Sviic. Printed at Strassburg, 1625 
(circa). (Royal Library, Berlin.) 

XXII. 1626. 

Etliche I HoHE geistliche Gesaenge, Sampt anderen | Geist- 
reichen getichten, so ausz der | alten Christlichen Kirchenlehrer vnd 

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jhrer | nachvolger Biichem gezogen. | durch D. S. | * ♦ * Zu 
finden bey Jacob von der Heyden | Chalcographo. 

Octavo. 144 pages. There are 42 poems, of which 33 are ar- 
ranged for use as hymns. Copper-plate illustrations accompany 13 
of the poems. This collection will hereafter be designated as Sxii. 
(Herzogliche Bibliothek, Wolfenbiittel.) 

XXIII. 1628. 


I Durch D. S. | Der IIII theil. | Ins kupfer gebracht vnd in druck 
geben durch Jacob von der Heyden 1628. 

This is the fourth collection in the series printed from copper- 
plates, and will hereafter be designated as Sviid. (Royal Library, 

XXIV.* 1709. 


Manuscript. This is the collection which seems to have been the 
origin of the series from which the "Saur edition" developed. A 
subsequent chapter is devoted to an account of the hymns of this 
collection and includes a sketch of the compiler. Whether the orig- 
inal manuscript still exists, has not been fully determined.* 

XXV.* 1733. 
Christliches- und dabey auch Tagliches | Gesang-Buch | Darin- 
nen enthalten : Geistliche Gesang und Lider, In welchen | Di Haupt- 
Punct und Artikkel der Christlichen Lehr und Glaubens | kurtz ver- 
fasset und ausgeleget sind. An izt von neuem zusamen getragen, | 
und vom Authore fiir sich und di Seinigen zu einer Anweisungs- 
Regel eingetheilet, | Auif alle | Sonn- Hohefest- und Feyertage 
durchs gantze Jahr, bey Ermangelung des | offentlichen reinen imd 
apostolischen Gottes-Dinsts, solches in der Stille und im Hause 

* There is a manuscript in the possession of Dr. Julius F. Sachse, of 
Philadelphia, which may prove to be either the original or a copy of this 
collection. This manuscript the writer has seen, but did not have the oppor- 
tunity for an extended examination of it. Besides, the title-page, the preface, 
and a part of the index are missing. A. F. H. Schneider also found in 
Harpersdorf a manuscript of hymns, the identity of which has not been 
established. (Cf. Zur Literatur der Schwenkfeldischen Liederdichter bis 
Daniel Sudermann, p. 21.) 

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^ ' 


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zugebrauchen : | Gotte damit zu loben, sich selbst zu ermahnen und 
zu unterweisen, zu seiner selbst Erbauung im Christen- | thum, und 
in reiner freyer Libe zu iiben, bisz Gott was bessers, und mehr 
Gnad j und Freyheit gibet, ihm im Geist und Wahrheit zudinen. | 
ANNO MDCCIX. | Und an izt nochmahlen auffs neu mit mehr 
geistreichen Gesangen vermehret und ver- | grossert, wi in der Vor- 
rede, im fiiniften Artikkel und folgends zusehen, und in Vier 
Abthei- 1 lungen zu Sonntaglicher Ubung geordnet und eingetheilet, | 
Abgeschriben und vollendet, im Jahr Christi MDCCXXXIII. 

Manuscript. Transverse quarto. The hymns comprise 761 pages 
of illuminative writing, "Frakturschrift" neatly executed. Each page 
has two columns. Individual lines of the strophes not separated. 
The title-page is well preserved. Passages of Scripture fill three- 
fourths of the reverse of the title-page. The text of the title as far 
as "ANNO MDCCIX" is presumably the title of the collection of 
that year. Four leaves are missing from the preface, which consist- 
ed of eleven leaves. It embodies the preface of the collection of 
1709. There is an index of first lines, an index of "Psalmlieder," and 
a third index which lists the hymns by authors. The present manu- 
script and the next number in our list together comprise the collec- 
tion compiled by Rev. George Weiss. A later chapter is devoted to 
an account of the sources, the content and the arrangement of this 
collection. The present volume is the property of Rev. O. S. Krie- 
bel, D.D., Principal of Perkiomen Seminary, Pennsburg, Pennsyl- 

XXVI.* 1734. 

Der andere Theil Dises | Christlichen | Gesang-Buchs, | von | 
Pfingsten bisz zu En- | de des Jahres. | Vollendet im Jahr | nach j 
Christi Geburt | MDCCXXXIV. 

Manuscript. Transverse quarto. The hymns comprise 863 
pages of the same hand- writing as that of the volume just described. 
The writing is illuminative. This manuscript is well preserved 
throughout. It is the companion of number XXV. Both volumes 
are bound in stamped leather and have clasps and metallic mounts 
and comers. This volume contains hymns for the Sundays, holy- 
days and Saints' Days between Whitsuntide and Advent. There 
are three indexes, as in the case of the companion volume. (Li- 
brary of Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Connecticut.) 

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XXVII.* 1752. 

E>er andere | Theil | Discs Christlichen | Gesang-Buchs | von | 
Pfingsten bisz zu En- | de desz Jahres. | Abgeschriben und vol- | 
lendet im Jahr nach | Christi Geburt | M. D. C. C. LII. 

Manuscript in folio. The hymns fill 866 pages, and are written 
upon Rittcnhouse paper.*^ This is a transcription of the hymrts of 
the second volume of the compilation by Rev. George Weiss. The 
transcriber was Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann. Interpretations, supplied 
by the transcriber, accompany a number of the hymns. The mar- 
gins contain copious annotations and Scripture references, of which 
but few are contained in the volume of 1734. (Historical Society 
of Pennsylvania, Hiiladelphia.) 

XXVIII.* 1753. 

Christliches | und dabey auch | Tagliches | Gesang-Buch | Darin- 
nen enthalten | Geistliche Gesang und Lider, | In welchen | Di Haupt 
Puncte und Artikel der Christ- | lichen Lehr und Glaubens kurtz 
verfasset und | ausgeleget sind. | An itzt von neuem zusammen ge- 
trageo, | und vom Authore fiir sich und di Seinigen zu einer | 
Anweisungs Regel eingetheilet, | Auf alle Sonn- Hohefest- und 
Feyer-Tage, durchs gantze | Jahr, bey Ermangelung des offentlich- 
en reinen und apostolischen | Gottes-Dinsts, solches in der Stille, und 
im Hause zugebrauchen ; | Gotte damit zu loben, sich selbst zu 
ermahnen und zu unterweisen, | zu seiner selbst Erbauung im Christ- 
enthum, und in reiner f reyer Libe, | zu uben, bisz Gott was bessers 
und mehr Gnad und Freyheit | gibet, ihm im Geist und Wahrheit 
zudinen. | ANNO MDCCIX. | Und an izt nochmahlen aufs neu | 
mit mehr geistreichen Gesangen vermehret und | vergrossert, wi in 
der Vorrede im funfften Artik- | kel und folgends zusehen, und in 
Vier-Abtheilungen | zu Sonntaglicher Uebung geordnet und ein- 
gethei- | let | Abgeschriben und vollendet, im Jahr Christi, | M. D. 

Manuscript in folio. This is a transcription of the hymns of the 
first volume of the compilation by Rev. George Weiss. The tran- 
scriber is. again Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann. As in the case of the 

• Compare statement of Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, LL. D., cited on p. 14. 

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preceding number, there are numerous interpretations, supplied by 
the transcriber. Annotations and Scripture references abound. 
The hymns comprise 989 pages. These companion volumes are 
bound in leather and provided with stout brass comers and mounts 
— the work presumably of Rev. Christopher Hoffmann, who was the 
bookbinder of the Schwenkf elders. (Historical Society of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia.) 

XXIX.* 1758. 

Ein I Christliches Gesang- | Buch, | Darinen enthalten geistliche 
Gesange | und Lieder. | In welchen, | Die Haubt-Artickel Christ- 
licher Leh- | re und Glaubens kurtz verfasset, erklaret | und ausz 
geleget sind. | Anjetzt von neuem zusammen getragen und ein- 
gerichtet | nach Ordnung der fiimehmsten Articuln, der Apostoli- | 
schen, Christlichen Lehre und Glaubens : Damit dieselben | mogen 
betrachtet, erkant, verstanden ; geliebet und geubet | werden, Gott 
damit zuloben ; sich selbst zuermjdinen | und zuunterweisen, zu 
seiner selbst Erbauung im | Christenthum. | 1st auch versehen mit 
einem Register, nach welchem | die Gesange auf alle Hohe Fest- 
Sonn- und Feyer- Tage | durchs gantze Jahr eingetheilet sind, dasz 
selbe zu denen Ev- | angelien (nach Belieben und wenn es gefallig 
ist, solche Ordnung | zugebrauchen) konnen gebraucht, geubet und 
betrachtet | werden. | Also zusammen geordnet und geschrieben 
im Jahr Christi | M. D. CC. LVIII. 

Manuscript in folio. On the reverse of the title-page are five 
passages of Scripture. The hymns comprise 1022 pages. There is 
an introduction of 33 pages. There are also two indexes, compris- 
ing 25 pages. The volume contains 800 hymns, in the graceful 
Fraktur of Hans Christoph Hubner. Annotations, Scripture refer- 
ences and index fingers abound. Those hymns which are transla- 
tions of Latin hymns are given in parallel columns with their Latin 
originals. The initials of the authors are written in the margin be- 
side the hymns. The present manuscript and the next number in 
our list together comprise the last re-arrangement of the Schwenk- 
felder hymns preceding the appearance of the printed hymn-book. 
This volume is of Rittenhouse paper and has a durable leather bind- 
ing. It is the property of the estate of Henry H. Heebner, Worces- 
ter, Pennsylvania. 

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XXX.* 1759. 

Ein I ander Christliche(s) | Gesang-Buch; | In welchem cnthal- 
ten : | Die biblischen Geschichte, | Die Psalmen Davids gereimet, 
und I Die geordnete Evangelia gereimet durchs | gantze Jahr ; | So 
zur Ordnung (Samlung) 1709, gehoren. | Weiter: | Noch ein Theil 
gesamlete Psalmen, | Die Lieder Daniel Sudermanns, | Die Medi- 
tationen, und | Die geordnete Epistel-Texte gereimet durchs | gantze 
Jahr; | So zur Ordnung (Samlung) 1726. gehoren. | Zusamen 
geordnet zum Gebrauch zu den ge(o)rdneten | Evangelien durchs 
gantze Jahr ; | worzu auch die Lieder im ersten Buche mit eingezeich- 
nct sind ; | Zu einer niitzlichen Hausz-Ubung, als auch zu eigner | 
Ermahnung und Erbauung im Christenthum.| Geschrieben im 
Jahr Christi MDCCLIX. 

Manuscript in folio. There is an introduction of six pages. 
The hymns with copious annotations fill 1204 pages. This volume 
contains only the six series of hymns designated in the title. Our 
characterization of these series follows in a later chapter. The 
hymns of the various series are distributed throughout the book, and 
are arranged according to the church year. The hymns for each 
Simday and holy-day are grouped under four heads: Fruhe, Vor- 
mittage, Nachmittage, Vesper, With each group, the compiler indi- 
cates the hymns of the corresponding group "in the first collection" 
(im ersten Buche) which are not contained in this volume. He re- 
fers to the collection of 1758. The present volume contains 879 
hymns, again in the pleasing hand of Hans Christoph Hubner. In 
the index of first lines those hymns which are contained in the 
collection of Caspar Weiss (1709) are indicated by a red initial. 
(Pennsylvania State Library, Harrisburg.) 

XXXI.* 1760. 

EinChristHches | Gesang-Buch ; | Darinnen enthalten | Geistliche 
Gesange und Lieder ; | In welchen | Die Haubt-Artickel Christlicher 
Lehr u. Glaubens | kurtz verfasset, erklaret und ausgeleget sind ; | 
Anjetzt von neuem zusammen getragen | und eingerichtet nach Ord- 
nung der furnehmsten Artickel der | Apostolichen Christlichen Lehr 
und Glaubens : damit diesel- | ben mogen betrachtet, erkant, ver- 
standen, geliebet u. geiibet | werden ; | Gott damit zuloben, sich selbst 

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zuermahnen und | zuunterweisen, zu seiner selbst Erbauimg im 
Christenthum. | 1st auch versehen mit einem Register ; nach wel- 
chem I die Gesange, auf alle Hohefeste, Sonn- und Feyer- Tage | 
durchs gantze Jahr, eingetheilet sind, dasz selbe zu denen E- 1 van- 
gelien (nach Belieben, und wem es gefallig ist solche Ordnung | zu- 
gebrauchen) konnen gebraucht, geubet und betrachtet werdcn. [ 
Also zusammen geordnet und geschrieben | Im Jahr Christi M DCC. 
LVIII. I Abgeschrieben und VoUendet | Im Jahr M DCC LX. 

Manuscript in folio. 977 pages. With regard to the hymns 
which it contains, this volume is a transcription of number XXIX. 
of this bibliography. The introduction of this volume contains in- 
formation which the present writer has nowhere else fotmd. 
Throughout the manuscript the "corrections" or variant readings in- 
troduced into numerous hymns by Caspar Weiss and George Weiss 
are indicated. In the seventh chapter of the present monograph, a 
fuller account is given of the special features of this hymn-book. It 
was written by Christopher Hoffmann. As a specimen of the sur- 
vival of the medieval art of illuminative writing, it is doubtless the 
choicest manuscript produced by the Schwenkf elders in America. It 
is in the possession of Hon. Samuel W. Penn)rpacker, LL.D., 
Pennypacker's Mills, Pennsylvania. 

XXXII. 1762. 

Neu-Eingerichtetes | Gesang-Buch | in sich haltend | eine | 
Sammlung | (mehrentheils alter) | schoner lehr-reicher und erbaul- 
icher | Lieder, | Welche von langer Zeit her bey den Bekennem | 
und Liebhabem der Glorien imd Wahrheit | Jesu Christi bisz anjetzo 
im Uibtmg | gewesen : | Nach den Haupt-Stucken der Christli- | chen 
Lehr und Glaubens eingetheilet, | und | Mit einem Verzeichnisz der 
Titel I und dreyen Niitzlichen Registem | versehen. | Anjetzo also 
zusammen getragen, | und | Zimi Lobe Gottes und heilsamen | Er- 
bauung im Christenthum, | ans Licht gegeben.j Germantown, 
gedruckt bey Christoph Saur, | auf Kosten vereinigter Freuden, 1762. 

12 mo. Pages XXXIII plus 760. There are also three indexes. 
This is the "Saur edition" of the Schwenkfelder h)rmn-book, the first 
hymn-book of the Schwenkfelders printed in America. It contains 
917 hymns. Our last chapter is devoted to an account of this hynui 
book. Many copies of this imprint still exist, in Schwenkfelder 
families and in historical collections. 

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XXXIII. 1765. 

Ein I ander Christliches | Gesang Buch | Welches in sich be- 
greifFt und enthalt | Die hundert und funfFzig Psalmen Da- | vids 
gereimet,| und die biblischen Geschichte.| Die Lieder Daniel Sud- 
ermanns : Die Medita- | tiones : und die geordnete Evangelions- und | 
Epistel- Texte, gereimet, durchs gantze Jahr. | Zu einer niitzlichen 
Hausz-Uebung, als auch zu eigner Er- | mahnung und Erbauung im 
Christenthum. | 1st auch versehen mit einem Register, nach wel- 
chem die Lie- | der auf alle Sonn- Hohe Fest und Feyer- Tage 
durchs I gantze Jahr zu denen Evangelien (nach Belieben u. wenn 
es gefallig ist) konnen betrachtet werden. | Jetzund also zusammen 
geschrieben und vollendet Anno MDCCLXV. 

Manuscript in folio. This volume is a re-writing of that of the 
year 1759, and contains only the hymns of said volume. In our 
present number, each series of hymns is separate, is provided with a 
special title-page and has its own preface. The transcriber is Hans 
Christoph Hiibner. (Schwenckfeld Library, Pennsburg, Pennsyl- 

XXXIV. 1813. 

Neueingerichtetes | Gesang-Buch,| enthaltend eine | Sammlung | 
(mehrentheils alter) | erbaulicher Lieder, | nach den Hauptstiicken 
der Christlichen Lehre und | Glaubens eingetheilet. | Philadelphia : | 
Gedruckt bey Conrad Zentler, in der Zwe3^en Strasze, | unterhalb 
der Rehs-Strasze. | 1813. 

Small 6to. Pages VIII plus 538. Three indexes. This is the 
secohd edition of the Schwenkfelder hymn-book. It is essentially an 
abridgment of the edition of 1762. It contains 695 hymns, of 
which 45 are not contained in the first edition. Numerous copies 
still exist. 

XXXV. 1869. 

Neueingerichtetes | Gesang-Buch, | enthaltend | eine Sammlung 
erbaulicher Lieder, | nach den Haupt-Stiicken | christlicher Lehre. | 
Herausgegeben auf Verordnung | der | Schwenkfelder Gemeinde. j 
Druck von A. E. Dambly, Skippackville, Pa. | 1869. 

Small i6mo. Pages VIII plus 540. Two indexes. This is the 
third edition of the Schwenkfelder hymn-book. It contains 343 
hymns, of which 92 are not contained in either of the earlier edi- 
tions. It is the present German hymnal of the Schwenkfelders. 

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REISSNER. 1596. (No. VI.) 


In disem Buech seind die gaistliche gsanng des Gottesgelehrten 
Christen manns, mit Namen Aurelius Prudentius, die er diurnarum 
precum opus sive diurnale, das ist Teglichs gsanngbuech genannt, die 
man alle tag vnnd alle stund, zu morgens und zu abends, mag singen 
vnnd betrachten, in Lateinischen versen geschriben hat, jeczt mit 
allem fleiss verteutscht worden, nachmals auch gsang vsz hailiger 
schriflft vnnd andere gaistliche Lieder, zimi Lob gottes, vnnsers 
Herm Jesu Christe, des ainigen Seligmachers, vnnd alien christ- 
gleubigen zur beszerung vnnd zur teglichen ubung zusamen 

Dise gsanng vnnd reimen sein nit so gering ding, vie man mecht 
achten, oder obhin ansehen, dann hierausz mag der Gottszforchtig 
mensch lemen, was die siind vnnd gnad ist, was der fluech vnnd der 
segen, was die verdamnus vnnd seligkait, was tod vnnd leben, was 
hell vnnd himel, jnn Summa, was der verfurer Satan, vnnd dargegen 
der ainig Hailmacher Christus jst. 

Es jst disz gsanngbuech fumemblich nucz vnnd dienstlich alien 
Hauszleuten, die sich bekeren vnd jn himel trachten, Mannen, Wei- 
bern, Junckhfrawen vnnd Kindern, insonnderhait auch Hanndt- 
werkhs-leuten, die den ganczen tag ob der arbait muessen siczen, 
wurckhen vnd spinnen, die mugen alle Zeit, guette libung, guete ge- 
danckhen vnd hailsame betrachtung haben, vnnd dardurch zum selig- 
machenden erkanntnis Jesu Christj (an welchem allein die ewig selig- 
kait gelegen) gefiihrt werden, Sonnderlich wann sie dise Lieder ausz- 
wendig lemen, jn gedechtnus fassen, sich selbs der wolthaten Gottes 
erjnnem, erfreuwen vnnd den zuhorem im Nachgedenckhen mach- 
en, vnnd also alle menschen vrsach haben, jrm hail vnnd seligwer- 
dung nachzutrachten, aller schwermiietigkait vnnd Anfechtung wi- 
derstannd thuen. 

Hierzu well der Herr Christus sein Segen vnd frid geben, das 
es jederman lese vnnd bedenckhen, sonnderlich zu diser gefehrlichen 
Zeit, da schier Niemandts waist wa ausz vnnd an, so doch allertrost, 

•Reprinted from Wackcmagcl, Vol I. 

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hilff vnnd hayl zusuchen vnnd zufinden, allein beim Ainigen Hayl- 
macher Christo, vff welchen alle lobsang gericht, das man sie nit 
allein singen, sonnder vilmehr leesen, bedenckhen vnnd teglich beeten 
mag, welches dann der recht gaistlich gsang vnnd frid jm herczen jst 
jn allem triebsal. 

Das alles welle ihm der Gottszforchtige Christglaubige leser, 
beuolchen lassen, vnnd zu besserer ericantnus der wahrhait, sich dar 
jnn ersehen, leesen, singen, vnnd jn seinem herczen teglich bedenckh- 
en, darneben mit fleissigem gebeth, beim Herren Christo anhalten, 
das er vns alien welle seinen frid geben, vnnd durch seinen hailigen 
gaist erleuchten, from, hailig, vnnd seines ewigen Reiches vnnd 
Lebens thailhafft machen. Amen. 

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The Schwenkfelder Hymn- Writers of the Sixteenth and 
Seventeenth Centuries. 

It will be the design of this chapter to provide an account 
of the Schwenkfelder h)min-writers whose activity had termi- 
nated before the emigration of the sect to America. Limitation 
in the matter of space necessitates the exclusion of much inter- 
esting material which had been prepared for this part of our 
narrative. Consequently we shall confine the account to a chro- 
nological list of these writers and a series of brief biographical 
sketches of the more important members of the group. Those 
writers who were among the immigrants will be treated in our 
account of the American period in subsequent chapters. 

The Schwenkfelder h)rmn-writers of the European period 

Valentin Crautwald, 

1465 (?)- 


Georg Berkenmeyer, 

(?) - 

-1545 ca. 

Johann Schweintzer, 

(?) - 

-1560 ca. 

Adam Reissner, 

1496 - 


Valentin Triller, 

(?) - 

-1580 ca. 

Johann Raimund Weckher, wrote (circa) 

1540 - 


Sebastian Franck, 

1500 ca.- 


Alexander Bemer, 


1550 ca- 

Bemhard Herxheimer, 

wrote (circa) 

1555 ff. 

Alexander Heldt, 


1565 ff. 

Sigmund Bosch, 


1570 ca. 

Daniel Sudermann, 


1550 - 

-163 1 

George Frell, 

wrote (circa) 

1575 ff. 

Claus Stuntz, 


1580 ca. 

'Antonius Oelsner, 

wrote (circa) 

1590 ff. 

Anna Hoyer, 

1584 - 


George Heydrich, 

(?) - 

-1657 ca. 

Martin John, Jr., 



Valentin Cbiautwald is a name not unfamiliar to stu- 


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dents of church history. Of his early life we know but little. 
An autobiographical sketch written 1540 is preserved in manu- 
script in the Herzogliche Bibliothek at Wolfenbiittel.* It fails 
to give the year of his birth. It records, however, that he was 
bom at Neisse, Silesia, the native town of Michael Weisse, 
originator of the German hymn-book of the Bohemian Brethren. 
He and Weisse were contemporaries and we may safely assume 
that they were acquainted. In 1523 he was called to Liegnitz 
as prebendary (Domherr) or Lector. This appointment he prob- 
ably owed to Schwenkfeld.^ He was an intimate of Schwenkfeld 
and for more than twenty years he ardently championed the cause 
of the Middle Way, as the Reformation under Schwenkfeld was 
called. For his accomplishments in Hebrew, Greek and Latin 
he enjoyed a wide reputation and was recognized as a gifted 
writer of religious verse, of which some was written in defense 
of Schwenkfeld. He died in Liegnitz, 1545, and is said to have 
reached the age of 80 years. 

Georg Berkenmeyer was exhorter in the Swabian city 
of Ulm. He is the author of a number of writings directed 
against Romanism and defending the doctrine of the "inner 
light." The period of his activity was, approximately, 1525- 
1545. At the time of the prosecution of Schwenkfeld by the 
town-council of Ulm, 1540, Berkenmeyer was indicted for par- 
tisanship with Schwenkfeld. His best known hymns are : 

"O Herr, bisz du mein Zuversicht", and 
"O du betrubter Jesu Christ." 

The former was printed at Strassburg, 1568, 1569 and 1580. 
Also at Niirnberg, 1607. The latter at Strassburg, 1580 and 


JoHANN ScHWEiNTZER was a Silcsiau and a pupil of Valen- 
tin Crautwald. In 1530, in partnership with Petrus Schaefer, he 
set up a printing press at Strassburg. Among the products of 

* Cf. A. F. H. Schneider, loco citato, p. 4f . 

* Cf. Corpus Schwenckfeldianorum, I, 151. 

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his press were editions of the writings of Crautwald and also 
of a few works by Schwenkfeld, including his confession of 
faith. Schweintzer had been associated with Schwenkfeld in 
Liegnitz and followed him to Strassburg in 1529. In 1556, he 
was subjected to a trial for his Schwenkfeldianism. The follow- 
ing hymns by Schweintzer are noteworthy: 

"Gliickselig ist der Mann", 

"O hochster Gott in deinem Thron", and 

"Dasz Gott der Herr so freundlich ist." 

All three appeared in the Strassburg hymn-book of 1537. The 
third appeared also in the Augsburg hymn-book (edited by 
Salminger), 1537, and in Zwick's hymn-book published at 
Zurich, 1540. 

Adam Reissner (or Reusner) was born in 1496 at Miin- 
delheim (now Mindelheim) in Bavaria. He first studied at Wit- 
tenberg, and afterwards, about 1520, he learned Hebrew and 
Greek under the noted humanist Johann Reuchlin. He then 
became private secretary to Georg von Frundsberg (who died 
1528) and accompanied him during the campaign in Italy, 1526- 
1527. After the capture of Rome in 1527 he went back to Ger- 
many, locating in Strassburg. It may be well to remind our- 
selves that Schwenkfeld was in Strassburg during the period 
1529-1535; and it was during his sojourn in Strassburg that 
Reissner made the personal acquaintance of Schwenkfeld. 
Henceforth he remained a loyal adherent and friend of the 
Silesian Reformer, as he himself said, "despite all opposition and 
affliction." The duration of his stay in Strassburg is uncertain. 
For some years he pursued the profession of the law in Frank- 
furt-am-Main, but seems to have spent most of his life after 
leaving Strassburg, in his native town of Mindelheim. Here in 
retirement and contentment, his professional career and public 
life dismissed from his mind, he found himself immersed in his 
favorite occupation — study and the pursuit of literature. The 
year of his death is not known with certainty, but was probably 

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1575. His motto, composed by himself and taking into consid- 
eration his own Christian name, was : 

"Was lebt, das stirbt durch Adams Noth, 
Was stirbt, das lebt durch Christi Tod." 

Adam Reissner's published works are these: 

1. The Miracles of Jesus Christ.^ Printed by the Feierabend 
press, Frankfurt-am-Main, 1565. 

This is a folio of 672 pages. It contains a long religious poem 
in 59 strophes of 7 lines, beginning: 

"Der heylig Geist lasz gelingen." 

The hymn is a summary of the miracles of Christ. 

2. A History of the Military Exploits of Georg and Caspar 
von Frundsberg. Frankfurt-am-Main, 1568. Second edition, 1572. 

3. The Psalms Translated. Frankfurt, 1568. This is an edition 
of Reissner's metrical versions of the Hebrew Psalms. Until recent 
years the author's private copy of these hymns was in the possession 
of Oberlehrer A. F. H. Schneider, the Schwenkfelder historian. 

4. Jerusalem,^ Printed by the Feierabend press, Frankfurt-am- 
Main, 1569. 

This is a folio of 442 pages. It consists of three parts, of which 
the first and second are dated 1565. It closes with the hymn — ^Jeru- 
salem, heilig genannt. This hymn, by Reissner, is a translation of 
the Latin hymn — Urbs beata Jerusalem, It is in 6 strophes of 6 
lines, and forms the acrostic "Jhesus". 

The Teglichs Gesangbuch, already discussed under number 
VI. of our Descriptive Bibliography, is another important work 
by Reissner. According to Koch,*^ this collection was published 
by Reissner. However, the manuscript of 1596 is the only 
form in which it is now extant. Of all the Schwenkfelder hymn- 
writers, in both Europe and America, the two greatest names 
are Daniel Sudermann and Adam Reissner. True, Reissner's 

• "MiRACVLA, Wunderwerck Jhesu Christ j. * * * Durch Adam Reissner." 
*"Iervsalem, Die Gaistlich himlisch Stat Gottes. * * * Durch Adam 


• Koch, loco citato, II, 159. 

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hymns do not, like those of Sudermann, number thousands; but 
they number hundreds, and their merit is unmistakable. Indeed, 
Wackemagel, who gives twenty-five of Reissner's hymns in full, 
expresses the opinion that he is the author of many h)rmns which 
have hitherto been credited to other writers. 

But of Reissner's most widely known h)rmn we have thus 
far made no mention. It is the choice magnificent hymn — "In 
dich hab ich gehofFet, Herr." This hymn is a metrical version 
of the Thirty-first Psalm. It was first published in the Form 
und ordnung GeystUcher Gesang und Psalmen, Augsburg, 1533. 
It appeared in Zwick's hymn-book, 1540, and in Babst's (Luth- 
eran) hymn-book, 1545. It was included in most of the German 
hymn-books up to the middle of the i8th century. It appeared 
in the German hymn-book of the Bohemian Brethren, editions 
of 1606 and 1639, and subsequently in the Moravian hymn- 
book. All the editions of the Schwenkf elder hymn-book con- 
tain it. The following are well-known English translations of 
this hymn :® 

"In Thee, Lord, have I put my trust", — Catherine Winkworth; 
"Great God! in Thee I put my trust",—/. C. Jacobi\ 
"Lord, I have trusted in Thy name",— Dr. H. Mills; 
"On Thee, O Lord, my hopes I lean", — N, L, Frothingham. 

We reprint the hymn, employing the orthography of the 
first edition (1533). 



"In dich hab ich gehoffet, Herr, 

hilff, das ich nit zu schanden wer 

noch ewigklich zu spotte. 

Des bitt ich dich, 

erhalte mich 

in deiner trew, mein Gotte. 

• Cf . Julian, loco citato, p. 955. 

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2. "Dein gnadig or nayg her zu mir, 
erhoer mein beth, thu dich herfiir, 
eyl bald mich zuerretten. 

In angst vnd wee 

ich lig vnd steh, 

hilfT mir in meinen notten. 

3. "Mein Gott vnnd schirmer, steh mir bey, 
sey mir ain burg, darinn ich f rey 

vnd ritterlich mog streytten 

Wider mein feynd, 

der gar vil seind 

an mich auff bayden seytten. 

4. "Du bist mein sterck, mein felsz, mein hort, 
mein schildt, mein krafft, sagt mir dein wort, 
mein hilff, mein hayl, mein leben, 

Mein starcker Got 

in aller not : 

wer mag mir wider streben? 

5. "Mir hat die welt triiglich gericht 
mit liegen vnd mit falschem dicht 
vil netz vnd haimlich stricken: 
Herr, n)rmm mein war 

inn diser gfar, 

bhiit mich vor falschen tiicken. 

6. "Herr, meinen gayst beuilch ich dir, 
mein Got, mein Got, weich nit von mir, 
nimm mich in deine hende ! 

O warer Gott, 

ausz aller not 

hilfT mir am letsten ende! 

7. "Glori, lob, ehr vnd herligkait 
sey Got vatem vnd sun berayt, 
dem hailing gayst mit namen. 
Die gottlich kraflFt 

mach vns syghafft 

durch Jesum Christum, Amen,'* 

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Valentin Triller was the editor of a hymn-book pub- 
hshed at Breslau, 1555.'' It contained 145 hymns, most of which 
were products of his own pen. It was reprinted 1559, under 
a new title.® Triller's h)rmns include many revisions of old 
German hymns and some translations of Latin hymns. Wacker- 
nagel reprints 11 1 hymns which are credited to him. Up to 
the time of his banishment from Silesia, in 1573, Triller stead- 
fastly maintained that the persecution which he suffered, as a 
Schwenkfelder by reputation, was wholly unjust, inasmuch as 
he held religious views which were altogether peculiar. How- 
ever, previous to the appearance of the first edition of his hymn- 
book, some of his hymns had been printed as Schwenkfelder 
hymns. Again, the early manuscript collections contain hymns 
by Triller, and these are retained in the larger collections com- 
piled in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. The Saur 
edition, also, contains fifteen of Triller's hymns. 

Daniel Sudermann,® in whom the cause of the Middle 
Way received both a fresh, a timely and powerful impetus, was 
the scion of an old and honored family. One of his ancestors, 
Hendricus (Heinrich) Sudermann, who lived in the 14th cen- 
tury, was a knight and a patron of the Order of St. Alexius. In 
the year 1432, and subsequently, Katharina Sudermann and 
other members of the Sudermann family, who had taken the veil, 
lived in the cloister of St. Gertrude at Koln, where they were 
occupied with the transcribing of religious books. Many of 
these manuscripts came into the possession of Daniel Suder- 
mann, and one of them, written in 1469, was taken as the model 
for his handwriting — the artistic engrossing hand of his numer- 
ous manuscripts, which has always received unvarying high 
praise for its symmetry and grace. Sudermann's father (1514- 

'"Ein Schlesich singebuchlein aus Gottlicher schrifft. * * * Durch 
Valentinum Triller von Gora." (Cf. Wackernagel, loco citato, IV, ipf. 

•"Ein Christlich Singebuch, fur Layen und Gelerten, Kinder und alten, 
daheim und in Kirchen zu singen. * * * Durch Valentinum Triller von 

•Cf. Schneider, loco citato, p. gff. Koch, II. Allgemeine deutsche Biog- 

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1564), whose court-name was Lambert Suavius, was an artist 
and copper-plate engraver. Among his patrons were Duke Will- 
iam of Cleves, Duke Frederick of Saxony, the Duke of Weimar, 
and two emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, Charles V. and 
Maximilian II. 

Daniel Sudermann was born at Liittich in the Netherlands, 
February 24, 1550. But little is known of his early years. In 
1558 we find him in school at Aachen. The year 1568 marks 
the beginning of his long career as private tutor (Hofmeister) 
to numerous young counts and noblemen. This activity con- 
tinued for a period of more than twenty years. In 1576 he 
was presented to the Emperor Maximilian, who "most gra- 
ciously" furnished him with an introduction to the newly ap^ 
pointed viceroy of the Netherlands. During these years he wrote 
many poems in praise of his high-born patrons and friends. In 
1585 he assumed the charge of the instruction of the sons of 
the nobility at the Bruderhof in Strassburg. In 1594 he was 
made vicar of the Bruderhof, where he lived until near the 
close of his long life. As early as 1585, reprints and new edi- 
tions of Schwenkf eld's works began to appear, issued under the 
direction of Sudermann, but not until 1594 did he announce 
his participation in the views of Schwenkfeld. He gives the 
following brief account of his own career:^® 

"D. S. 1st geboren Anno 1550. Er ist Catholisch, aber bald Anno 
1558 In der Caluinischen Schul gangen. Auch zu der Lutherischen 
predig mit gangen. Den Teuffern auch zugehort. Ist Anno 1594 zu 
erkantnusz der Warheit kommen, vnd hat Ao. 1624, disz vffge- 
schrieben seines alters 74. noch starck, frisch, vnd gesund, als lang 
der Herre sein Christus wil. bisz 1628. 1629. Gottlob. 1630. 1631." 

His death occurred in 1631. 

The earliest of Sudermann's poems which still exist were 
written in 1568. His poetic activity during the period 1572-1580, 
was limited for the most part to the production of motto-hymns 
and acrostic poems, the latter in praise of his patrons of noble 

" Cf. Corpus Schwenckfeldianorum, I, Sif. 

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birth. Beginning with the year 1584, he seems to have been 
occupied for some years chiefly with the publishing of Schwenk- 
feld's works. Neither the editor's name nor the place of publi- 
cation, Strassburg, appears in any of these editions. It will be 
remembered that the Sixteenth Century was the great age of 
the German "master-singers" and their "Singschulen," and for 
a few years (1589-91 ) Sudermann practiced the Meistergesang — 
the writing of lyric poetry according to the strict rules of the 
guild of the Meistersanger. Many of his poems of this period 
are included in his manuscript collections of later years, and are 
usually indicated by the marginal note: "Disz ist ein Meister- 
gesang." That Sudermann joined the "master-singers" of 
Strassburg, or that he was acquainted with his contemporary 
Johann Fischart can not be said with certainty. However, 
Fischart was a staunch Protestant and began his literary career 
by writing satires on Catholicism. Of these, the most import- 
ant, Der Binenkorb (1579) and Das Jesuitenhutlein (1580), 
were issues of the printing-press of Jobin, Fischart's brother-in- 
law, in Strassburg, the press which soon after printed some of 
the Schwenkfeld literature published by Sudermann. 

In his next period, 1594 ca. — 1610, we find Sudermann 
wholly absorbed in his study of the mystics. In these years his 
unresting enterprise is applied in part to the collecting of old 
and rare manuscripts of the writings of such Christian teachers as 
Bemhard of Clairvaux (1090-1153), Bonaventura (1212-74), 
Meister Eckhart {ca. 1260- 1327), Heinrich Sense, or Suso 
(1295-1366), Johann Tauler {ca. 1300-61)/^ Johann Geiler of 
Kaisersberg (1445-15 10), Heinrich Vigilis of Weissenburg 
(1489) and numerous other exponents of the belief in the direct- 
ness of the soul's communion with God. From these writings 
he made selections of the choicest passages, which he compiled 
and added to his library. A number of the manuscripts col- 
lected he himself transcribed with the greatest care. Indeed, it 
may safely be said that the recognition which is due Daniel 

" Cf . Corpus Schwenckfeldianorum, I, 389. 

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Sudermann for having collected, transcribed and preserved this 
literature has hitherto not been acknowledged. His hymns both 
of this period and later years reflect much of the sentiment and 
the imagery of these Christian writers, of whom Tauler was for 
Sudermann the master-teacher and close companion. 

The last two decades of his life, like the earlier periods, 
Sudermann spent chiefly in literary employment. Until about 
1628, he lived at the Bruderhof. He was never married, always 
enjoyed good health, and even at the age of 80 years he gov- 
erned an active and a vigorous pen. He was a voluminous 
transcriber of Schwenkfelder literature, and in this role he was 
designedly supplying a real want of his friends. These tran- 
scripts are frequently inscribed thus: 

"Disz Buch soil niemands eigen sein, 
Schwenckfelds Discipeln ich schenks insgemein." 

In this period he completed the fair-copy of his hymns con- 
tained in collections S Hla, S Illb and S HIc of the list given 
below. All of the important collections of hymns by Suder- 
mann which appeared in print, were published in the years 1618- 
1628. As might be conjectured, a number of the hymns written 
in this decade reflect the fierce religious strife of the calamitous 
Thirty Years' War. 

Sudermann was the author of 2500 hymns and other relig- 
ious poems, of which 435 have appeared in print. Wackernagel 
alone prints 211 of Sudermann's hymns in full. Schneider^* 
gives a list of Sudermann's writings amounting to twenty-seven 
numbers, not including his theological treatises. If now we re- 
mind ourselves that for more than a score of years Sudermann's 
duties as Hofmeister claimed the major portion of his time, that 
he directed the publication of many of Schwenkfeld's works, 
that during his curacy at the Bruderhof he accumulated a col- 
lection of old manuscripts which has ever since been an object 
of admiration to bibliophiles, copied five large volumes of hymns, 

^ Cf . A. F. H. Schneider, loco citato, pp. I2ff. 

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edited twenty publications of writings by himself and by Tauler, 
and that by forty years of toil as transcriber he has preserved 
to us a vast quantity of Schwenkfelder literature as well as much 
of our information concerning Schwenkfeld and his adherents, 
we shall be able to approximate a just conception of the amazing 
activity of this resourceful and devoted champion of Caspar von 

The complete list of collections of hymns written by Suder- 
mann follows. Of the published collections, the place of publi- 
cation is given if known. The Roman numeral given after the 
title refers to our Descriptive Bibliography. 

Si. Geistliche Lieder. Manuscript in folio. 1587. v. 

S II. Geistliche Lieder. Manuscript in folio. 1597. viii. 

S III a. Gsangbuch Newer geistlicher Lieder. I. Theil. Manu- 
script in quarto. 1615. ix. 

S III b. Gsangbuch Newer geistlicher Lieder. II. Theil. Manu- 
script in quarto. 161 5. x. 

S III c. Gsangbuch Newer geistlicher Lieder. III. Theil. Manu- 
script in quarto. 161 5. xi. 

S IV. Von der Tochter Sion. Strassburg. 1618. xii. 

Sv. EinguteLehr. Strassburg. 1619. xiii. 

S VI. Five leaves in folio, xiv, 

S VII a. Schone ausserlesene Figuren und hohe Lehren. Strass- 
burg. 1620. XV. 

Sviib. Schone ausserlesene Sinreiche Figuren. Strassburg. 
1620. xvi. 

S VII c. Schone auszerUsene Sinreiche Figuren. Strassburg. 1625 
(circa), xxi. 

S VII d. xxxxx. Schoner auszerlesener Sinreicher Figuren. 1628. 

S VIII. Ein Schone Lehr, von den sieben Graden, oder Staff eln 
der volkommenen Liebe. Strassburg. 1622. xvii. 

S IX. Twelve Leaves in folio, xviii. 

S X. Hohe geistreiche Lehren, und Erkldrungen. 1622. xix. 

S XI. Sixteen Pages in folio, xx. 

Sxii. Etliche Hohe geistliche Gesdnge. Strassburg. 1626. xxii. 

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As a hymn-writer, he was honored by his contemporaries 
and is ranked high by modem writers on hymnol(^. Gram- 
matically, his poetry is not infrequently defective, but it will be 
remembered that his linguistic traditions were Low German. 
Schneider says: "Sudermann always chose good models, in 
Dutch, French and Latin as well as in German. Schwenkfeld's 
flow of language, Reissner's brevity and Tauler's fervour are 
reflected in his writings." Wackernagers valuation of Suder- 
mann and his hymns runs thus, in English translation: "He 
was a true Christian, his poems are simply like so many spon- 
taneous devotions, in which his soul was submerged as he studied 
the Holy Scriptures, the church fathers, the mystics and the 
Refomiers; and it seems as though in the fifty years of his 
hymn-writing he had only godly thoughts. I have spent much 
time in the study of this author; indeed, I have a fondness for 
him, because his h}rmns are so genuine and at the same time so 
pertinent." The following hymn on the deception of temporal 
joy, written in 1584, we have chosen to illustrate both the godli- 
ness and the lyric fire of this prince of Schwenkfelder hymn- 
writers : 

"von der falschen betrueglichen weltfreude. 
"O blinde Welt, wie hast du mich gestoret 
Von Jugend vff vnd noch in diese Zeit, 
O arge Welt, wie hastu mich bethoret 
Vnd abgebracht von rechter Bahn so weit ! 
O falsche Welt, 
Wollust vnd Gelt, 
Wee dem ewig, der auff dich belt. 

"O kurtze freiid, o langwirige schmertzen, 
O Ewigkeit, wie machst mir ein getrang, 
Warn ich emstlich bedenck von gantzem hertzen, 
Nach dieser Zeit dasz du wehrest so lang. 
O falsche Welt, etc. 

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"O liechteschein, welchs finsternisz gebehret, 
Dein Ehre f iihrt zu spott vnd ewger schand, 
O kurtze Rhu, so lang die Seel beschweret, 
O Eygen Will, hemach gfangnisz vnd band ; 
O falsche Welt, etc. 

"Fahr bin o Welt, dir will ich vrlaub geben, 

Fahr hin o Welt, esz musz geschieden sein, 

Fahr hin o Welt, mit dir mag ich nit leben, 

Fahr hin o Welt, du brechst mich sunst in pein. 

Fahr hin o Welt, 

Wollust vnd Gelt, 

Wee dem Zuletst, der auff dich belt." 

Martin John, Jr., was born in Glatz, 1624. This was six 
years after the outbreak of the Thirty Years* War and five 
years before the appearance in Germany of Gustavus Adolphus, 
king of Sweden, as the defender of the leaderless Protestants. 
The story of the early life of Martin John, the younger, reflects 
the privation and suffering of this final, protracted conflict be- 
tween Protestantism and Catholicism. For three generations 
this Schwenkfelder family was prominent in the struggle of the 
sect in Silesia for existence. 

In 1583, the elder Martin John, grandfather of the subject 
of this sketch, adopted the faith of Schwenkfeld, and in 1584 
bought property in Harpersdorf and settled there. Soon after, 
he began to work as a lay evangelist, holding public services at 
his own house. Persecution followed, and he and his associates 
became the victims of violence and incivility. His household 
furniture was destroyed, his fields laid waste and he himself 
committed to prison at Liegnitz. After a year's confinement 
here, where the most unsanitary conditions prevailed, with con- 
sequent disease and death among the prisoners, he was removed 
to the tower of an old castle on the Grotzberg. Here in 1594, 
after eight years of detention he died, having steadfastly refused 
to exchange his liberty of conscience for personal freedom. Nu- 
merous sermons and tractates penned during his imprisonment 

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were brought to America by the Schwenkfelder immigrants in 


The father of our hymn-writer was George John, who with 
his family for a time escaped the hardships of the war. In 1627, 
however, a detachment of Imperial troops was quartered in his 
house with instructions to resort to torture, if necessary, in order 
to compel the family to embrace the Catholic faith. A guard was 
placed before each door of the house to prevent flight or rescue. 
But George John had made provision for a possible exigency of 
this kind. Much to their surprise, and contrary to their accus- 
tomed treatment the soldiers were invited to enjoy a substan- 
tial repast. The temptation proved too great for their vigilance, 
and a day of festivity was proclaimed. Picture their satisfac- 
tion when the feast already in progress is augmented by an 
abundance of the choicest wine. The ruse of the host is wholly 
successful. First a general carousing and tippling, and by and 
by soldiers and watch are soundly intoxicated and fast asleep. 
Under cover of the night, George John now escapes, taking with 
him his wife and two children and a sister. The elder child, a 
daughter, was at this time eight years of age and little Martin 
in his fourth year. All his life he retained the memory of this 

When we next hear of Martin John, Jr., he is some thirty 
years of age and a physician in the town of Hockenau, Princi- 
pality of Jauer, Silesia. The war had been terminated by the 
Treaty of Westphalia (1648) ; but this treaty, like the Peace of 
Augsburg (1555), granted to every ruling prince the right to en- 
force his religion upon his subjects, and to banish all who refused 
to conform. In a word, the Schwenkf elders had again been out- 
lawed, and with the year 1650-51 began the period of oppression 
which the Schwenkfelders of that time and succeeding genera- 
tions called "the great persecution."^^ Martin John, Jr., is the 

"For an account of the persecutions which the Schwenkfelders suffered 
after the Peace of Augsburg and again after the close of the Thirty Years* 
War, vide "The Schwenkfelders," by Hon. C. Heydrick, in the Genealogical 
Record of the Schwenkfelders. 

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author of an account of Schwenkfeld, his tenets and the history 
of the reformation under Schwenkfeld up to the second half of 
the Seventeenth Century. Several copies of this chronicle are 
extant in manuscript in America. It includes an account of the 
measures adopted by the magistracies of Liegnitz and Jauer at 
the instigation of the Lutheran clergy, for the coercion of the 
Schwenkfelders. The chronicler records with great particular- 
ity the reproach and persecution suffered by his contemporaries 
George Heydrich, the hymn-writer, and Balthaser Jakkel, both 
of whom publicly opposed the baptism of the children of 
Schwenkfelder parents. Heydrich was deprived of his property 
in Harpersdorf , was twice made to endure extreme hunger and 
twice received a cudgeling. He was three times imprisoned at 
Liegnitz. During his final imprisonment (1654-1656) he con- 
tracted an illness of which he died shortly after his release. 
Martin John, the subject of this sketch, also passed about nine 
months in prison at this time at Jauer, for having conducted 
religious services. 

Although the chronicle in question furnishes many facts of 
the life of Martin John, Jr., it does not contain a connected nar- 
rative of his career. However, from this and other sources it 
appears that he was a man of considerable learning and an ardent 
believer in Schwenkfeld's conception of Christian living. As a 
chronicler, he rendered significant service; and he always la- 
mented the fact that through the persecution of the preceding 
century as well as by reason of the long war, a great amount 
of historical matter and printed literature had been lost and de- 
stroyed. He died in 1707 at the advanced age of 83 years. 
Soon after, and while the hymn-collection of Caspar Weiss was 
being compiled, his hymns came to light and forty were immedi- 
ately admitted to the collection. All the editions of the Schwenk- 
felder hymn-book contain hymns by Martin John. The Saur 
edition contains thirty. As far as we know there has not been 
found a collection of his hymns that purports to be complete; 
and hence a full account of his activity as a hymn-writer must 
be deferred until additional information concerning him has been 

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disclosed. There exists a manuscript of ninety-seven hymns by 
Martin John, of which about one-third are translations of Latin 
hymns, chiefly by Aurelius Prudentius.^* Of the hymns of this 
collection, a number are metrical versions of Psalms. It is note- 
worthy that this Schwenkfelder physician, historian and hymn- 
writer, was also the author of a printed work on bee-culture. 
As far as we know, there is but a single copy of this imprint ex- 
tant in America.*** 

We give here a poem of Schwenkfelder authorship printed 
on a broadside in 1580. The place of publication is not known.*® 


"Es 1st mir allzeit lieb, 

Wann gute Freunde zu mir kommen ; 

Dann, weil ich mir schon langstens vorgenommen, 

Nicht viel mehr aus zu gehen, 

So kan man leicht verstehn, 

Dasz mir der Zuspruch lieber Leute 

So angenehm als niitzlich sey ; 

Doch, disz erinnere ich dabey, 

Dasz, weil ich sehr erpicht aufs angenehme Heute 

Mir der am liebsten sey, der wohl bey sich erwagt, 

Wie, offt ein guter Freund dem andern 

Viel edle Zeit vertragt: 

Drum wer nichts Nothigs mehr zu sagen weisz, 

Beliebe nur bald wiederum zu wandem ; 

Dan wer zum Zeit-Vertrieb, mit ausgekehrten Sinnen 

Von seinem Nechsten schlecht, ohn' Zweck zur Bessrung spricht, 

Und von sich selbst zum Lob, und sonst von eitlen Dingen 

Der hat die Zeit nur iibel angewendt ; 

Wan ich ihn aber bleiben heisz, 

So trau cr mir, es sey kein Compliment." 

" This manuscript is in the possession of Mr. Daniel M. Anders, Fairview 
Village, Pa., who kindly permitted the writer to examine it for this work. 
Mrs. Susanna Krauss Heebner, Worcester, Pa., is the possessor of a manu- 
script of which a part consists of hymns by Martin John. 

" In the possession of William H. Anders, Kulpsville, Pa. 

"A copy of this broadside is in the possession of Hon. S. W. Penny- 
packer, Former Governor of Pennsylvania, who kindly allowed the present 
writer to reprint the "madrigal" here. 

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Schwenkfeld himself seems to have written but little verse. 
Of course he recognized the irresistible power of congregational 
singing as an agency in the establishment of the Reformation 
cause, and was looking on with the warmest approval as all 
Germany, awakened by the song of "the nightingale of Witten- 
berg*' began to sing itself into Protestantism. It was he who, in 
1534, requested Katharina Zell to publish a new edition of the 
first German hymn-book of the Bohemian Bretliren.*'' True, it 
is possible that some hymns of his may have been suppressed 
along with other literature from his pen. However, a few treas- 
ured verses of his composition have been preserved. We give 
here three pairs of rhymed couplets by Schwenkfeld. The first 
appears in all the editions of the Schwenkfelder hymn-book, on 
the reverse of the title-page. The other two strophes appear on 
a broadside published by Daniel Sudermann. This broadside 
contains a contemporary portrait of Schwenkfeld, of the year 
1556. The verses in question appear just below the portrait. 
They are a metrical amplification of Schwenkf eld's motto : "Nil 
triste Christo recepto." On the same broadside are twenty-eight 
lines of verse written, according to Schneider,*® by Sudermann. 
They begin: "Herr Caspar Schwenckfelds leib und G'stalt."*® 
Following are the strophes by Schwenkfeld: 

"Wenn singt im Hertzen Gottes Geist, 
In Christo Gott wird recht gepreiszt ; 
Wenn aber singt der fleischlich Christ, 
Solch Lob fur Gott ein Greuel ist. 

Wer lesum christv vor im hat 

der rhvet sanfte frve vnd spat 

er ist getrost in aller nott 

und ob er schon hie steckt im chott 


' Cf. A. F. H. Schneider, loco citato, p. 21. 
" Cf . A. F. H. Schneider, loco citato, p. 12. 

**Cf. Erlduterung fur Caspar Schwenckfeld, Second edition, facing 

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Das er avch wird der wellte spot 
so schaidet er doch nit von got 
der in behvet vor hell und todt 
vnd speist in mit seim himel brott. 

The following hymn entitled "Of the Love of Christ," be- 
cause of its associations, must always retain — at least for 
Schwenkfelders — a peculiar charm. It was written in Ulm on 
the occasion of the approaching death of Schwenkfeld. In the 
earliest Schwenkfelder collections which contain it, Agathe 
Streicher is named as the writer of the hymn. It will be ob- 
served, however, that the fourth and sixth lines of the third 
strophe seem to indicate that it was not written by a woman, 
and for this and other reasons the question has been raised by 
Wackernagel : "May it have been written by Schwenkfeld him- 
self?'' The hymn follows :2<> 

"von der LIEB CHRIST J. 

"Wach auf, mein seel, 
mit Psalmen, Beeten, singen, 
hab Lieb ob alien Dingen 
den waren hochsten Gott, 
Jhesum, sein Lieben Sohne, 
regierend jn dem Trone 
in gleicher macht vnnd Ehr, 
fiir mich am Creuz gestorben. 

2. "Jhesu, mein Gott, 
gib dich mir zuerkennen : 
wa jch dich nu hor nennen 
sich mein gemut erfreut. 
Du kennst dein Creature, 
das jch bin von Nature 
durch Satanns List vnnd trug 
in siinden ganz verdorben. 

•Reprinted from Wackernagel, Vol. V. 

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3. "Herr JHESU Christ, 
lasz dir es gehn zu herczen 

den Jamer vnnd den schmerczen, 

darjun jch gfangner bin, 

Von meiner siinden wegen, 

darjn jch armer glegen 

inn Hell, jn Angst vnnd tod, 

du allein kanst Erlosen. 

4. "Da jst kein Rast 

noch ru zu keiner stunde, 
bisz Du mich machst gesunde 
an gewissen, hercz vnnd seel : 
Flier ausz von disem Laide, 
das jch von Dir nit schaide, 
das jch Dir volge nach 
vnnd mit gedult verharre. 

5. "Ich opfer mich 

dir, meinem Gott vnnd Herren, 
jch bitt Dich, wellest mehren 
mein glaub, hoffnung vnd Lieb, 
Das jch bej dir mog bleiben, 
das mich nicht kiind abtreiben 
Verfolgung, Angst vnnd tod, 
flier mich jns Ewig Leben." 

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Hymns Used by the Schwenkfelders Before 1762. 

In our account of the hymns sung by the Schwenkfelders 
prior to the appearance of the Saur edition, we are concerned 
chiefly with the American period. Among the followers of 
Schwenkfeld there have always been hymn-lovers, who have 
sought to preserve the hymns written by Schwenkfelders. Thus, 
in 1537, Valentin Ickelsamer^ published at his own expense a 
letter of consolation received from Schwenkfeld during a serious 
illness, and with the letter Reissner's hymn: "In dich hab ich 
gehoffet, Hern" Thus about the middle of the century, Reissner 
wrote his Teglichs Gesanghuch, in which he preserved hundreds 
of the hymns of the earliest Schwenkfelder writers. Thus half 
a century later, Sudermann set forward the same work. Thus 
in the Seventeenth Century the hymns of Sudermann, Oelsner, 
Anna Hoyer, Heydrich and Martin John, Jr., were saved; and 
in the next century, despite the menace of persecution in Europe 
and the hardship of pioneer-life in America, Caspar Weiss, 
George Weiss, Balthaser Hoffmann, Christopher Kriebel, Hans 
Christoph Hiibner, Christopher Hoffmann, and Christopher 
Schultz all produced large transcripts of Schwenkfelder hymns. 

These hymns, excepting such as were not suitably arranged 
to be sung, were preserved for use. To be sure, the early 
Schwenkfelders could not, like those who settled in America, as 
a sect establish churches, adopt an order of worship and prepare 
a hymn-book for general use. In these matters each community 
of Schwenkfelders was usually independent of all others, be- 
cause of the state measures decreed to prevent religious confer- 
ences and public worship among them. In the Sixteenth Century, 
followers of Schwenkfeld were found, not only in Silesia, but 
in many parts of Germany and in Moravia, Switzerland and 
Holland. Strassburg, Augsburg and Ulm were leading centres. 

* Cf. Schneider, loco citato, p. 7. 

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In the Royal Library, Berlin, is a manuscript containing hymns 
sung by the Schwenkf elders in Ulm, ca, 1560-1580. In 1583 
this congregation was dispersed, some settling in Soeflingen and 
others in Justingea In their affliction they had a hymn-book 
printed for their own use and consolation -.^ "G. M. D? Bin 
Christlich Psalter-Gebett der Betrengten Kirchen Gottes zu Trost 
gestellet und ausjs den CL. Psalmen Dauids susamengesogen. 
Ulm, Johann Anton Ulhart, MDLXXXV." 

In America there was from the first a gradual increase in 
the practice of using hymns collected by Schwenkfelders. These 
collections, as noted, included the best hymns of Schwenkfelder 
authorship. In numbers XXV. and XXVI. of our Descriptive 
Bibliography, which were written in Saxony and brought to 
America in 1734, and which together comprise the earliest tran- 
scription of the collection of George Weiss, there are unmistak- 
able evidences that this manuscript furnished many of the h)rmns 
sung in their public worship. Again, soon after the death of 
George Weiss (1740), and during the ministry of Balthaser 
Hoffmann, a number of smaller manuscript hymn-books ar- 
ranged for church use and based on the Weiss hymn-book ap- 
peared. The largest of these is extant in two voltunes, quarto. 
It was completed in 1747 and is the work of Christopher Kriebel, 
later the catechist of the Schwenkfelders. Indeed, this activity 
began in the first years following the landing of the Schwenk- 
felders. There is preserved a hymn-book of this kind inscribed : 
"Written for Rosina Yeakel. Anno 1735." It contains hymns 
for the Sundays and holy-days and for some of the Saints' Days, 
beginning with the first Sunday of Advent. A careful compar- 
ison has shown that the collection in question is an abridgment 
of the Weiss hymn-book. It is supplied with an index of first 
lines, and throughout bears manifest marks of having rendered 
service.* This is true of most of these hymn-books, which shed 

•Cf. Schneider, loco citato, p. 8f. Koch, II, 421 f. 

• Votum: "Gott mit dir": "God be with you." 

*In the possession of Rev. J. H. Dubbs, D. D., LL. D., Franklin and 

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much light upon a portion of the chronicle recorded for the year 
1759 in the Historische Anmerkungen^ by Rev. Christopher 
Schultz. The passage runs thus : "For years we have had under 
consideration the question of publishing a hymn-book for our 
own use, believing that it would prove a welcome work, because 
the hymns which we are using — excepting those which chance 
to be preserved by transcription and compilation — ^have a scat- 
tered existence." 

We do not wish to convey the idea that the Schwenkfelders 
have at no time used printed hymn-books other than those in- 
tended for the sect. The Silesian Schwenkfelders knew and 
used all the editions of the German hymn-book of the Bohemian 
Brethren (Moravians), admitting possibly a single exception. 
For a period of about thirty years beginning 1535, this hymn- 
book was not generally in favor among Schwenkfelders, because 
of a change in Schwenkfeld's attitude to this religious body. 
But after the appearance of the edition of 1566 and until the 
emigration from Silesia (1726) the Schwenkfelders of the prin- 
cipalities of Liegnitz and Jauer continued to use these hymns. 
A number of copies of this hymn-book were brought to America 
by the Schwenkfelder immigrants. Twelve of these copies have 
come under the observation of the present writer. Some of the 
copies, which were rebound when still in use, were supplied 
with blank leaves on which were added in manuscript the hymns 
used by the sect but not contained in the Bohemian hymn- 
book.® This fact is a striking corroboration of our thesis, that 
the Schwenkfelders probably at no time used only the hymns of 
the Bohemian Brethren. 

We are not disposed, however, to depreciate the significance 

Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa., who kindly allowed the present writer to 
compare this manuscript with its original. The book seems to have been 
written by Rev. George Weiss. 

•Published by Prof. M. D. Learned, Ph. D., L. H. D., in Americana 
Germanica, Vol. II, No. i. 

• The most interesting copy of this description known to the writer is the 
copy which was owned and used by David Seibt. It is in the possession of 
Hon. S. W. Pennypacker, Former Governor of Pennsylvania, 

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of the splendid service which Bohemian hymnody performed for 
Schwenkfeldianism. Indeed, of the bequest left to Christendom 
by the Bohemian hymn-writers, most of the Protestant churches 
of Germany and Great Britain have in some measure been bene- 
ficiaries. The German hymn-book of the followers of John 
Huss was a manual of devotions in hundreds of Schwenkfelder 
families during the weary years of unyielding persecution. The 
copies brought to America include all the editions issued from 
Schwenkf eld's death (1561) to the end of the Seventeenth 
Century. According to a Schwenkfelder chronicle written in 
Silesia in the Seventeenth Century by Hans Seibt, and supple- 
mented and extended in America, Melchior Dehnst, a pious 
Schwenkfelder writer and transcriber was occupied (1660 ca,) 
with the revision of a number of hymns in the Bohemian hymnal 
— his aim being to adapt them to Schwenkfeld's Confession of 
Faith. Balthaser Hoffmann also records, in a document which 
we shall quote in our next chapter, that this hymn-book was 
still in common use among the Schwenkfelders at the opening of 
the Eighteenth Century. Indeed, in the matter of arrangement, 
the hymn-books of the Schwenkfelders printed in America all 
retain the stamp of the quarto editions of the Bohemian hymnal. 
We list here the various editions of the German hymn-book 
of the Bohemian Brethren since it served as an important source 
for the Schwenkfelder collections discussed in the remaining 
chapters of this work: 

1531. Ein New Geseng buchlen, Jungen Buntzel durch Geor- 
gen Wylmschwerer. 1531. 6to. Was the largest collection of Ger- 
man church hymns yet published. Contained 162 hymns, of which 
143 were translations from the Bohemian, by Michael Weiss (e). 
Other editions: Ulm, 1538, and Ulm, 1539 (two editions). 

1544. Ein Gesangbuch der Briider in Behemen und Merherrn, 
Niirnberg, 1544. 8vo. Contained 181 hymns: 149 hymns of Michael 
Weiss and 32 hjmins added by Johann Horn. Of these, 26 had been 
translated into German by Horn, who edited this hymn book. 

1566. Kirchengeseng. First quarto edition of Bohemian hymn 
book (German). Contained 343 hymns. Of the hymns of the edition 

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of 1544, only 15 are omitted. This edition has an appendix with 106 
h)mins by Lutheran authors. 

1580. Kirchengesang. The preceding edition (1566) repub- 
lished without alteration. Niimberg, 1580. 

1606. Kirchengesdnge. The edition of 1566 revised and en- 
larged. Martin Polycarp was the editor. Published in Moravia. 

1639. Kirchensdnge. A new edition. Published at Lissa, 
Poland. Contained 360 hymns written by Bohemian Brethren. Of 
these, 141 are hymns of Michael Weisse. This edition contains a 
biographical list "of those (14) persons who translated the Bohemian 
h)anns into German verse". This is the only edition in this series 
which furnishes biographical information concerning these hymn 
writers. We shall have occasion to mention this list again, in our 
discussion of the Schwenkfelder hymn-book of 1762, 

1661. Another edition of the German hymn-book of the Bo- 
hemian Brethren was published at Amsterdam in 1661. The editor 
was the noted educational reformer John Amos Comenius.'' 

' Cf. Julian, Dictionary of Hymnology, p. 156. 

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Caspar Weiss: The Originator of the Schwenkfelder 


We have already seen that the first Schwenkfelder hymn- 
book printed in America was not an isolated production but a 
member of a series of h)ann-books, of which the earlier numbers 
remained in manuscript. The collection of hymns which stands 
at the head of this series bears the date of 1709. It was made 
by Caspar Weiss, a devout Schwenkfelder, who lived in the 
town of Harpersdorf, Principality of Liegnitz, Silesia. Our 
knowledge of this early Schwenkfelder hymn-collator, must un- 
fortunately remain limited. The year of his birth is not known. 
His death occurred in Harpersdorf in 17 12, a few years before 
the period of the strenuous though fruitless effort of the Jesuit 
mission in Silesia to stamp out the Schwenkfelders as a sect. 
For the following conclusions, however, we have ample docu- 
mentary testimony : First, that Caspar Weiss was an ardent de- 
votee of the faith of the great Reformer for whom he was , 
named; and, second, that by reason of his familiarity with the 
various creeds represented in Protestantism at the opening of the 
Eighteenth Century, he was admirably qualified for the work 
of compiling the hymn-collection which, in a direct line of de- 
velopment, became the original ancestor of the first printed hymn- 
book of the Schwenkfelders in America, three generations later. 
He possessed the additional qualifications of being talented 
musically, and of having a wide familiarity with the church 
hymn. He knew the Latin hymns of St. Augustine, St. Am- 
brosius, St. Hieronymus and others of the church fathers, the 
h)anns of Luther, the earliest German hymn-books of the Bohe- 
mian Brethren or Moravians (called by Weiss the Picards), 
the hymns of the Schwenkfelder hymn-writers of the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries, and the well-known NUrnbergisches 
Gesang-Buch of 1690. 


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The following brief account of Caspar Weiss is taken from 
the Vorrede und Bericht prefacing the manuscript volume of the 
year 1758: 

"Dieser Caspar Weiss ist geburtig gewesen von Deutmannsdorff, 
im Fiirstenthum Jauer in Schlesien, sehr schlechter * und armer An- 
kunfft; hat das Leinweber-Handwerck gelernet; und sich in Har- 
persdorff (im Furstenthum Liegnitz) mit Anna Andersen, George 
Anders dess Aeltem, Tochter, vertrauet; und also in HarpersdorfF 
in einem schlechten ^ Hausslein gewohnet ; Und hat also seine gantze 
Lebens-Zeit in Armuth zugebracht. Gott hat ihm Zwey Sohne und 
eine Tochter bescheret. Der jungste Sohn aber, und die Tochter 
sind in ihrer Jugend gestorben. Der alteste Sohn aber, mit Namen 
George, ist eben der, so* hemach an diesem Gesangbuche* gear- 
beitet, und es vermehret hat." 

Translation : 

"The above mentioned Caspar Weiss was born at Deutmanns- 
dorf, Principality of Jauer, Silesia, of very plain and poor parents. 
He was a linen weaver by trade, and plighted his troth to Anna 
Anders, daughter of George Anders, the elder, of Harpersdorf, 
Principality of Liegnitz, and lived in Harpersdorf in a modest little 
home. And thus he passed his entire life in poverty. God gave him 
two sons and a daughter. The second son, however, and the daugh- 
ter died young. The elder son, George by name, it was who later 
revised and enlarged this hymn-book." 

In testimony of the fact that Weiss was recognized as a man 
of intelligence and influence, and that he bore his part in the 
persecution, to which in the closing years of his life the Schwenk- 
felders of Liegnitz in particular were subjected, we cite a brief 
excerpt from the so-called Erlauterting* of the Schwenkf elders. 
Tottering with age, the venerable Weiss was compelled to stand 
for six long hours before the notorious Herr Pastor Johann 

* For New High German "schlichter^ and "schlichten" : plain, simple. 
"«. ^., "welcher." 

■ The collection of 1709. 

* Erlduterung fur Caspar Schwenckfeld, und die Zugethanen seiner Lehre. 
Second edition, Sumnytaun, 1830, p. 59. 

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Samuel Neander, in the latter's study, to give an account of his 
faith. The passage follows : 

"Gemeldeter Neander hat gedachten Caspar Weiss, in seiner 
Studier-Stube ganzer sechs Stunden vor sich stehen gehabt, ohne ihn 
niedersitzen zu lassen, ihn um seinen Glauben zu examinieren ; wel- 
ches Stehen dem alten Mann fast nicht auszuhalten gewesen, so wil- 
lig und bereit er sonst zum Bekenntniss war. Von Seiten des Pa- 
storis, mag ein Verstandiger seine eigenen Gedanken hievon haben, 
was es fur ein Gemuth anzeige." 

Translation : 

"For six full hours, the afore-mentioned Neander kept said 
Caspar Weiss standing before him in his study without permitting 
him to sit down, in order to question him concerning his faith. This 
standing the aged man was scarcely able to endure, though he was 
quite willing and prepared to make his confession. A rational per- 
son will draw his own inference of the disposition indicated hereby 
on the part of the said Pastor." 

For the information we possess concerning the origin of 
the hymn-collection of Caspar Weiss, we are indebted to the pen 
of Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann. The latter also recorded, in a his- 
torical manuscript still extant, an account of the sources of the 
collection, as well as a statement of the method pursued by Weiss 
in arranging and editing the individual hymns. We quote Hoff- 
mann in full, inasmuch as he both was an intimate of the Weiss 
family and, as we have already noted, figured prominently in the 
activity which this monograph purposes to set forth : 

"Und da ist denn zu wissen, dass Caspar Weiss, sein * Vater, 
den Anfang dazu* gemachet; und ist er dazu verursachet worden, 
durch einen alten einfaltigen Schwenkfelder seiner Zeit, mit Nahmen 
Mertin Mentzel (war des alten Melchior Mentzels* Vater). Der 
hat einmahl zum Caspar Weiss gesagt: Du kontest wohl das Ge- 

• The reference is to the collection of George Weiss, begun 1726. 
•One of the Schwenkfelder immigrants of the year 1734. Cf. Genealogi- 
cal Record, page xxx. 

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sang-Buch (war das gedrukkte Gesangbuch^, wi es noch im grossen 
Format ist) etwas ordnen, wi sich di Gesange zxi den Evangelien 
fiigten (denn es war alles in Unordnung und Einfalt), dass man si 
ein wenig nach Ordnung singen konte: Denn du hattest Verstand 
und Wissenschaft dazu. Weil denn • Caspar willig war den Leuten 
zu dinen, und ihm auch um Ubung in Lehre und Bekantniiss zu 
thun war, hat er solches in Bedenken genommen. Nun hatte er ihm • 
di Psalm-Lider *° schreiben lassen,^^ samt vilen andem Lidem, welche 
er gesammlet ; auch di so genanten Romischen Lider ^^, kamen auch 
zur selben Zeit Mert. Johns Lider ^' (nach seinem Tode) an Tag. 
Ober das** setzte George Weiss, sein Sohn (auff den Willen des 
Vaters) di Evangeliums Texte *" in Reime. Und also ordnete Cas- 
par Weiss ein Gesang-Buch zusammen, tiach dem Jahr-Gang (wel- 
ches di Ordnung ist, wi si von mir abgeschriben 1709, und noch zu 
sehen ist) und tibergab und dedicirte solches gleichsam seinen Kin- 
dem, mit der Vorrede oder Zuschrifft, und hat ihnen solches wollen 

Translation : 

"And it may therefore be made known that Caspar Weiss, his 
father, began the work. And he was encouraged to do it by a plain, 
old Schwenkfelder of his time, whose name was Martin Mentzel 
(old Melchior Mentzel's father) At one time he said to Caspar 
Weiss: "You, of course, could rearrange our hymn book (referring 
to the large, printed hymn book, which we still have), in such a way 
that the hymns would accord with the gospel lessons and could be 

' The hymn-book of the Moravians. One of the quarto editions which we 
have listed in our preceding chapter. 

•The manuscript has "den." 

• For the reflexive pronoun "sich." 

"Metrical versions of the Hebrew Psalms. Compare numbers vi, xxx 
and xxxiii of our Descriptive Bibliography. 

"For "abschreiben lassen." 

"The hymns of Aurelius Pnidentius. Written (circa) 400 A. D. in 
Latin. The German translation of these hymns is the work of Adam Reissner. 
A brief account of the life of Prudentius is given below. 

"Martin John, der Jungere (1624-1707). 


"Metrical versions of the "gospel-lessons," called usually: Lieder uber 
die Evangelia. Several copies of these hymns are extant in manuscript 

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sung to some extent in order. You would have the required intelli- 
gence and information." And since Caspar was ready to serve his 
people, and had occasion to do something for practice in Christian 
doctrine and in confession, he considered the matter. Accordingly 
he had the Psalm-hymns copied, together with many other hymns 
which he collected, and the so-called 'Roman hymns.' At that very 
time, the hymns of Martin John came to light, being shortly after 
his death. In addition, George Weiss, his son (at the request of 
his father) composed hymns on the Gospel Lessons. And thus did 
Caspar Weiss compile a hymn book, in accordance with the church 
year (the collection which I** copied, 1709, and which still exists), 
and committed it, so to say, to the care of his children and in the 
preface dedicated it to them, desiring them to regard it as a bequest." 

The statement here given of the sources from which Weiss 
drew, although both instructive and trustworthy, needs to be 
supplemented. According to the account of the compilation given 
by the author himself, the hymns of Aurelius Prudentius (in 
their German dress) were made the foundation of the collection. 
To these were added a number of hymns representing the 
Schwenkfelder muse — ^the following Schwenkfelder hymn-writers 
having been preferred : Adam Reissner ( 1496-1575 ra. ), Johann 
Raimund Weckher (wrote ca. 1540-1570), Daniel Sudermann 
(1550-1631), CJeorge Frell (wrote ca. I575ff.), Antonius Oels- 
ner (wrote ca. i^goft.), George Heydrich (died 1657 ^^O* ^^^ 
Martin John, Jr. (i 624-1 707). 

Another important source of the collection was the hymn- 
book of the "Bohemian Brethren" (Moravians). The originator 
of the CJerman hymn-book of the Moravians was Michael Weiss 
(or Weisse), who translated about 150 hymns into CJerman from 
the Bohemian, and issued the first edition of these hymns at 
Buntzel, 1531. Of this hymnal there were three later editions, 
all published at Ulm. Johann Horn, a Moravian, who wrote 
many hymns, both in Bohemian and in CJerman, issued at Niirn- 
berg (1544) a revised edition of the hymns of Michael Weiss, 

*• Balthaser Hoffmann. 

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enlarged by the addition of a number of hymns of his own au- 
thorship. The other early German hymn-books of the Moravians 
were the editions of 1566, 1606, 1639 and 1661, together with 
their reprints. With all these Caspar Weiss was thoroughly 
familiar; for he spared no zeal in scrutinizing the text of each 
hymn before admitting it to his collection, that the finished 
work might contain nothing that was not in accord with Holy 
Writ. The variant readings of the successive editions were care- 
fully collated and compared, preference being consistently given 
to the text in its original form, except where the doctrine failed 
to be plainly non-sectarian. The Moravian hymn-book referred 
to in the citation given below, was the edition of 1639.^'' 

Still another source of the collection of Caspar Weiss was 
the hymn-book referred to below as das grosse Niirnbergische 
Gesang-Buch}^ This source contributed the Lutheran hymns 
of the collection, together with some hymns of Reformed author- 
ship. And finally, there were incorporated into the collection 
the metrical versions of the "gospel-lessons" for the church year, 
written expressly for this compilation by George Weiss, the son, 
at that time but 22 years of age. The section of the original 
preface (1709) treating of the sources, follows: 

"Belangende di Authores, auss welchen disc Gesange zusammen 
getragen sind, so ist aurelius prudentius, oder der Obersetzer 
desselben Lider, der Urheber unsers Gesang-Buches und folget zum 

Di Vorrede liber des prudentii Gesangbiichlein, 

"Erstlich sind di Gesange Hyronimi, und Lider des theuren 
Christen-Mannes aurelii prudentii, di er Diurnarum rerum opus, 
das ist: Tagliches Gesangbiichlein, genant, und in Lateinischen Ver- 
sen geschriben hat, mit allem Fleisse, durch einen Libhaber der 
Wahrheit, verdeutschet ; nachmahls auch ander Lider, Nimanden 



book of 1639. 

" Doubtless the hymn-book of 1690. 

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zur Schmach, sondem zur Glori unsers Herren Jesu Christi, zusam- 
men gebracht: Diss alles wolle ihm der gottseelig-christliche Leser 
lassen befohlen seyn; zu mehrer Erkantniiss der Wahrheit, sich er- 
sehen, und im Hertzen bedenken: Daneben mit taglichem Bitten 
beym Herren Christo anhalten, so ist zu hoffen er werde bald bessers 
und mehrers geben ; nemlich : di Psalmen Davids, mit reiner lautrer 
Wahrheit, und Doknetschung von Wort zu Wort aus der Hebrei- 
schen Zungen, verdeutschet, di man nicht allein in der Gnade Christi 
lesen, sondem auch singen; sich iiben, und mit dem Munde der 
Wahrheit bekennen; und also bas** aussen lernen ihm einbilden; 
sich zur Wahrheit ja mehr^® schikken, darinnen wachsen und zu- 
nehmen. Das gebe der Herr Jesus! zu seiner Glorien und viler 
Menschen Heil. Amen. 1555- 

Folget das Leben PRxn)ENTii. 

AuRELius Prudentius, vom LeserAugusto, aus Hispanien ge- 
bohren, von Jugend auff in gutten Kiinsten, in lateinischer und 
grichischer Zungen ; auch in Kayserlichen Rechten, unterrichtet und 
gelehret: Hat tmter dem N. und Honorio; wi auch ihrem Vater 
Theodosio, Krig gebraucht ; und ist Platus Miles nachmahls zu Mes- 
selia ein Oberster, und in der Stadt Rom vor Konigs Dittrichs von 
Bern, Zeit, zum fiiniften mahl Consul, oder Biirger-Meister gewe- 
sen. Als er nun fiinff und sibenzig Jahr alt worden, hat er sich 
bekehret, und harte bekiimmert, dass er sein Leben von Jugend an 
libel verzehret: und hat mit Verlassung der Welt angefangen, dem 
Herren Jesu zu dinen, und ihn zu bekennen: Hat geistliche Lider 
gedichtet, di noch vorhanden; nemlich vom Kampffe der Seelen 
wider di Siinden, vom Ursprung der Siinden, von der Gottwerdung, 
vom Leyden der Martyrer und Zeugen Christi ; Insonderheit hat er 
geistliche Kirchen-Gesange geschriben und gemachet; welche Ge- 
sange man auff disen Tag zum Theil singet. Er hat gelebet zur 
Zeit Hironimi, Ambrosi und Augustini ; und zur Zeit als di Gothen, 
das ist, di Deutschen, und andere fremde Kriges-Volker, Roma, 
Italia, und das gantze Konigreich, durch Krig verderbet haben ; ehe 
denn das Pabsthum angefangen: Aber Apostasia (Abfall) und kraff- 
tige Irrthum schon gewaltig auff der Bahn waren : Denn di Lehrer 

"For New High German Cesser." 
*i. e., "jemehr." 

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des Volkes, mit ihrer Philosophia und Sophisterey, hatten angefan- 
gen den Herren Christum zu verdunkein; welcher Irrthum biss aufF 
den heutigen Tag immer krafftiger worden, und gewachsen ; wi Pru- 
DENTius von Apotheosie, in dem Lide von den Lehrem di das Volk 
verfiihren,^^ zu erkennen gibet. (Aurelius Prudentius.) 

"Diesem allhi gemeldten Prudenti Gesang-Biichlein, seind ein- 
verleibet, viler von Gott hocherleuchteter Christglaubiger, gelehrter 
und ungelehrter Manner, Lider und Gedichte; derer Nahmen zum 
Theil allhi gemeldet werden sollen : Als : I. Reimund Wekker. II. 
Adam Reissner. III. George Frell. IV. Daniel Sudermann. V. 
Antonius Oelsper. VI. George Heydrich. VII. Martin John, der 
jiingere, und vil andere Zeugen und Bekenner der Glorien Christi, 
welche di Wahrheit alle aus einem Hertzen, als mit einem Munde, 
Gott zur Ehr, und den Menschen zu ihrer Erbauung bekennt, be- 
zeugt, und davon gesungen haben. 

"Zum andern ist disem Gesang-Buche auch einverleibet wor- 
den, das grosse Gesang-Buch, der so genannten Picarden, oder Bo- 
heimischen Briider, welches erstlichen von Michael Weiss angefan- 
gen: nachmahls aber von Johann Horn, gemehret und verandert: 
Von welcher Veranderung ein Gottesgelehrter S. E.^^ schreibet, dass 
er einen neuen Abgott damit auffgerichtet habe: welcher, wi ich 
hoffe, allhir wider abgethan seyn wird. Welch Gesang-Buch her- 
nach abermahls von vilen Lehrem ihres Theils vermehret zu einem 
grosseH Werke. Deren Nahmen in ihrem Gesang-Buche an ihrem 
Orte stehen ; welche gutte Poeten und Dichter sind gewesen, wi ihre 
Gesange ausweisen; welche von vilen fromen gottglaubigen Men- 
schen mit Libe und Lust, nicht ohne grossen Nutz, sind gesungen 
und betrachtet worden. 

"Zum dritten, sind disem Buch auch einverleibet, der so ge- 
nanten Evangelischen oder Lutherischen, und Reformirten Gesange, 
welche zum Theil di biblischen Geschichte und Psalmen Davids, auch 
vil andere niitzliche Sachen, innen halten; deren Poeten Nahmen 
auch an vilen Orten, und sonderlich im grossen Niimbergischen Ge- 
sang-Buche, gedacht wird; welche allhi mit Willen aussen gelassen 
sind, weil man nicht allwege bey ihren Worten und Sinn bliben ist, 

** This hymn is contained in the manuscript volume of 1758, p. 888. 
"Samuel Eisenmenger (?). 

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sondem einen wi ich hoffe, der Schrifft gemassem, und dem Glau- 
ben ahnlichern Sinn, dafiir eingeschoben. 

"Zum virdten sind ihm auch einverleibet worden, Gesange iiber 
alle erklarte Evangelia durchs gantze Jahr; fiber welche di eigne 
Vorrede himechst f olget : *^ 

"Es soil Nimand meinen, dass disc, in disem Tractatu stehende 
Lider und Gesange fiber di Evangelia, Ruhm oder Lob zu suchen, 
ausgegeben sind; Weil auch dessen damit wenig zu erlangen wfirde 
seyn : Und bey denen Christen Ruhm- und Ehr-sucht, vomehmlich 
in solchen Dingen, nur ein Pharisaisches Werk ist. Auch sind si 
nicht ausgegeben, sich mit Zirlichkeit und hochprachtigen Reim- 
Arten sehen zu lassen; welche hirin nicht zu finden, sondem denen 
studirten Poeten fiberlassen; sondem si sind auch aus der Einfalt 
ausgegeben und hervorkommen : Achte auch daffir, dass si von der 
Einfalt am besten konnen betrachtet werden. Sind aber aus keiner 
andem Ursach ausgegeben, als di Reden und Thaten Christi, dem 
Einfaltigen desto besser ins Gedachtnfiss zu bringen, diweil di Evan- 
gelisten solchen Fleiss angewand, solches zu bezeugen und zu be- 
schreiben, di Christen desto gewisser zu machen, in dem was von 
Christo zu halten und zu glauben ist, wi Lucas Cap. i. an Thiophilum 
bezeuget. So achte ich auch daffir dass keine nfizlichere Ubung ist, 
als di Worte, Reden und Thaten Christi zu meditiren und zu be- 
trachten, weil si der andem Glaubigen Lehr und Thaten weit fiber- 
treffen ; ob si wohl auch von dem Heiligen getriben, solches gethan, 
so sind doch in den Reden und Thaten Christi di allerbesten und 
vomehmlichsten Lehren, Vermahnungen, Trostungen und Wamun- 
gen, enthalten und begriffen; welche auch von alien Christen, am 
fleissigsten sollen gemeditirt, betrachtet und gefibet werden. Aus 
solcher und keiner andern Ursache sind dise Gesange fiber di Evan- 
gelia heraus gegeben, unss in der Einfalt darin zu fiben, di Lehren, 
Vermahnungen, Trostungen und Warnungen Christi desto bekannter 
zu machen: Welches aber ohne des Geistes Gottes Wfirkung und 
Beystand nicht geschehen kan, so wolle derselbige aus seiner Gnade 
verleyen und geben, dass wir si zum Lobe Gottes und zu unserer Er- 
bauung, singen, betrachten und fiben! Wenn si aber Imande vor 
kamen, der si unnfitze und unnotig achtete, bitte ich, er wolle si 

"The remainder of this excerpt is the preface written by George Weiss 
for his metrical versions of the gospel-lessons. 

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denen lassen, di si ihnen wissen niitze zu machen. Kommen si aber 
Imande vor, der ihm einen Nutzen daran ersihet, der sage Gott 
Lob und Dank darum; weil Gotte fiir alle Gaben zu danken ist, si 
sind natiirlich oder geistlich; und lasse sich um den Author unbe- 
kiimmert, weil er si nur fiir sich und die Seinigen, welche es auch 
hertzlich verlanget haben ausgegeben hat. Gott wolle uns seinen 
Geist, den Geist der Gnaden und Andacht, um Jesu Christi seines 
liben Sohnes willen geben und verleyen, dass wir si singen, be- 
trachten und gebrauchen, zu seinem Lob, Preiss und Ehren, und uns 
zu unsrer Seelen Heil und Seeligkeit. Amen" 

With respect to the classification of the individual hymns, 
two distinguishing features serve to characterize the collection 
of Caspar Weiss. First : The hymns are arranged, not accord- 
ing to theme or rubric, but in agreement with the course of the 
ecclesiastical year — a group of hymns being arranged for each 
Sunday and holy-day in the calendar year, beginning with the 
first Sunday of Advent. Moreover, a close study of the classi- 
fication reveals the fact, that the compiler intended that each 
hymn should, as far as possible, be peculiarly appropriate to the 
particular day to which it was assigned. Secondly, the hymns 
thus set apart for each Sunday and holy-day are further ar- 
ranged into two groups : one group being designed for use in the 
morning worship, and the other in connection with afternoon or 
evening devotions. ^^ It may also be observed, in conclusion, that 
the completed compilation was designed primarily for the use of 
the author's own family. This fact is noted by the Rev. Bal- 
thaser Hoffmann in his account of the collection, quoted above, 
and is also plainly stated on the title-page of the original collec- 
tion itself. 25 

The following general classification of the hymns compiled 
by Caspar Weiss — on the basis of authorship — is suggested in 
the introduction to the manuscript volume of 1758: (i) the 

** In the original collection, the titles given the sub-groups for each day 
are : "Fruhe" and '*Vesper." 

" Compare number xxv of our Descriptive Bibliography. 

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Psalmen or Psalm-Lieder, namely, metrical versions of the 150 
Psalms ; by Cornelius Becker, Adam Reissner, Martin John and 
others; (2) the so-called Biblische Geschichte, namely, a sum- 
mary, in verse, of the more significant events of Biblical his- 
tory, most of the hymns of this series having been written by 
Adam Reissner; (3) the Evangeliums-Gesange, to wit, the met- 
rical versions of the gospel lessons, by George Weiss; and (4) 
a miscellany, constituting the remainder of the compilation, and 
composed of 518 hymns taken from numerous Schwenkf elder, 
Moravian, Lutheran and Reformed hymn-writers. Following 
is a complete list of the writers of these miscellaneous hymns, 
together with the number of hymns each has contributed. In 
this table we include also a register of the initials of these 
authors, as they appear written beside the hymns in the manu- 
script folio volume of the year 1758, in the folio volume by the 
Rev. Christopher Hoffmann (1760), and in a limited number of 
copies of the Saur edition : 

Abraham von Franckenberg i 

Andreas Knophius 2 

Antonius Oelsner 6 

Aurelius Prudentius 23 

Adam Reissner 24 

Bemhard Herxheimer i 

Bartholomeus Ringwald 2 

Burghard Waldis i 

(Doctor) Caspar Creutziger i 

Conrad Hubert i 

Christian Keymann i 

Centurio Syrutsko 3 

Daniel Sudermann i 

Erasmus Alberus i 

Erhard Hegenwald i 


V. Fr. 
















C. C. 












. Heg. 

Digitized by 



G. F. 

George Frell 


G. H. 

George Heydrich 


G. N. 

George Neumarck 


G. R. 

George Richter 


G. V. 

George Vetterus 


G. W. 

George Weiss 


H. V. 

Henrich Vogter 


J. A. 

Johann Angelus 



Johann Freder 


J. Gel. 

Johann Geletzky 


J. Gig. 

Johann Gigas 


J. Gir. 

Johann Girkius 


J. He. 

Johann Hermann 


J. Ho. 

Johann Horn 


J. Hu. 

Johann Huss 


D. J. J. 

(Doctor) Justus Jonas 

J. K. 

Johann Koritansky 

J. R. W. 

Johann Raimund Weckher 

J. Steg. 

Joseph Stegmann 

L. H. 

Ludwig Helmbold 

L. L. 

Lucas Libanus 

L. Eo. 

Ludwig Oeler 


Mg. Alb. 

MarggrafF Albrecht 


M. C. 

Martin Cornelius 


M. G. 

Mattheus Greyter 


M. J. 

Martin John 


D. M.L. 

(Doctor) Martin Luther 


M. M. 

Martin Mollerus 


M. P. 

Martin Polycarpus 


M. S. 

Martin Schalling 


M. T. 

Michael Tham 


M. W. 

Michael Weiss 


N. H. 

Nicolaus Hermann 


D. N. S. 

(Doctor) Nicolaus Selnecker 


Digitized by 



Paulus Eberus 2 

Petrus Herbertus 68 

Paulus Speratus 2 

Saint Augustine i 

Saint Bernhardus 2 

Sebald Heiden i 

Siegmund Weingartner i 

(Valentin) Triller. 16 

Valentinus Schultz 3 

Valentinus Weigelius i 

W. M. Wolfgang Mosel i 

Anonymous 49 

Summarizing now, in accordance with the above classifica- 
tion, the complete collection of Caspar Weiss consisted of the 
"Psalmen," numbering 216 hymns; the "Biblische Geschichte," 
28 hymns; the "Evangeliums-Gesange," 112 hymns; and a com- 
pilation representing a variety of rubrics and numbering 518 
hymns. Total, 874 hymns. The complete list of these hymns, 
which had been prepared for this chapter, it has been necessary 
to omit. 




















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George Weiss: Writer and Compiler of Hymns. 

Our bibliographical account of Rev. George Weiss, the 
first minister of the Schwenkfelders in America, has been re- 
duced to the minimum, both in order to save space, and also 
because the sources cited in the footnote below will furnish the 
reader a sufficient life-sketch of the subject of our study in this 
chapter. As already noted, he was the son of Caspar Weiss, 
whose work on behalf of Schwenkfelder hymnology we have 
just considered. He was born at Harpersdorf, in Silesia, 1687, 
and died within the present limits of Lower Sal ford township, 
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, on the eleventh of March, 

Like his father, he was admirably fitted for the work of 
a hymnodist. He had a natural bent for the writing of poetry, 
although unfortunately he never received training in the poetic 
art — B, fact which he himself lamented frequently, both in his 
efforts as a compiler of hymns, as well as when acting in the 
role of a hymn writer. He had rendered his father much as- 
sistance in transcribing and compiling the hymns of the collec- 
tion of 1709. He was versed in three of the ancient languages 
— Hebrew, Greek and Latin. Being of pious parentage, he was 
early indoctrinated with Biblical principles, as well as grounded 
in the creed and tenets of Caspar von Schwenkfeld. Indeed, 
it may safely be said that there has never been a more intensely 
spiritual Schwenkfelder than George Weiss.^ 

The following brief account of George Weiss, extant in 
manuscript, may be submitted in this connection; inasmuch as 
it is here published for the first time, and also because it was 
penned by his co-eval and lifelong bosom friend. Rev. Balthaser 
HoflFmann. It bears the date of 1753. 

*For an account of the literary and ministerial activity of Rev. George 
Weiss, sec : H. W. Kriebel. The Schwenkfelders in Pennsylvania, pp. 56ff. and 
i86ff. Genealogical Record of the Schwenkfelders, pp. xxiii and 1-3. 


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"George Weiss war gebiihrtig von Harpersdorff, einem Dorffe 
im Fiirstenthum Lignitz in Schlesien ; sein Vater hat geheissen Cas- 
par Weiss, von Deutmanns-Dorff gebiihrtig; seine Mutter Anna, 
eine gebohme Andersin, gebiihrtig von Harpersdorff, alle beyde 
schlecht,* arm und unansehnlich vor der Welt. George hatte einen 
Bruder mit Nahmen Caspar, und eine Schwester mit Nahmen Ma- 
ria; sind alle beyde in bester Jugend in Schlesien gestorben. Im 
Jahr 1 71 5 hat er sich in Ehestand begeben, sein Weib hat Anna ge- 
heissen, eine gebohme Meschterin, gebiihrtig von Langen-Neundorff ; 
diselbe ist biss in das * Land mit gekommen, und bald nach der An- 
kunift in Philadelphia gestorben, ligt daselbst auff dem Pilgrims- 
Begrabniiss in der Erde.* Ein Sohnlein haben si mit einander ge- 
zeuget, und ist genant worden Abraham ; ist in seinem andren Jahr 
ihnen schon wider entnommen; ist er also in disem Lande gantz 
arm, einfaltig und allein, und vor der Welt unwerth gewesen. Weil 
er denn in heiliger Schrifft einen zihmlichen Fleiss gehabt, und einen 
Willen zu Gott und seiner Ehren; wiwohl aber auch mit viler 
Schwachheit und Verhindemiiss, hat ihm Gott aber ein herrlich 
Maass, Gabe und Pfund verlihen, zu einem Aufschluss der heiligen 
Schrifft, der Geheimniisse Gottes, und zum Unterscheide der reinen 
Christliche Theologia, in diser letzten verwirrten Zeit. * * * 
Also ist er demnach unter unss zu einem Vorsteher, als in Ordnung 
einer (Jemein, zu einem Handleiter des Bekantniisses, Zu einem 
Wegweiser im christlichen Leben, und zu einem Anfiihrer der Ju- 
gend angenommen worden, in Bezeugung dass er fahig dazu er- 
kannt wiirde, dass er solches vermoge ; da er denn nach seinem Er- 
kantniiss, mit Berathung und Befragung seines Gewissens und mit 
vilem Seuffzen zu Gott eine Ordnung und Einrichtung gestellet, und 
einen solchen Eyffer um Gott dabey bezeiget, dass auch wohl einige 
Kennzeichen sich geaussert und iiberzeugende Merkmahle ge- 
wesen, dass ein solcher Weg richti g der grade Buss-Weg zur 
Seeligkeit ist, nehmlich, eine gantzliche Erkantniiss und Absterbung 
des Verderbniisses, in wahrer Dehmutt, Thranen und Gebet; Auf- 
opfferung und Ergebung in den Willen Gottes, und solches alle 

•1. ^.,"schlicht" 
• I. e., America. 

*The cemetery referred to, if still existing, has not been identified. It 
may have been a burial-place since abolished. 

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Tage zu emeuem ; fleissige t)bung in heiliger Schrifft, mit taglichem 
Gebett um Aufschluss gottlicher Geheimniiss, und um Gnade zur 
Besserung und Vemeuerung des Lebens, nach Anweisung der heili- 
gen Schrifft etc. Da er denn solchen Dinst mit hertzlichem Eyffer 
um Gott und der Menschen Seeligkeit 4 Jahr gepflogen, hat das letzte 
Jahr seine Natur zihmlich abgenommen, auch durch eine Krankheit, 
seines Todes Erinnerung geschehen, hat er aber bey aller Schwach- 
heit seinen Fleiss, sovil als es moglichsten mochte seyn getha», biss 
eine Woche vor seinem Ende er bettlagrich worden. Seine Krank- 
heit bestunde meistens in Mattigkeit, und ein wenig Seitenstechen, 
wurde ein Magen-Fiber genennt, dass er keinen Schmakk mehr zum 
Essen hatte, machte ihm auch hefftige Beschwerde im Leibe, ist also 
mit gutter Besonnenheit 1740, den 11. Mertz, im 53. Jahr seines 
Alters auss der Zeit abgefordert, und also zur Erden bestattet wor- 
den, ligt begraben zu Schippach auff dem Lande George Jakkels.*" 

Translation : 

"George Weiss was bom in Harpersdorf, a village in the prin- 
cipality of Liegnitz in Silesia; his father was Caspar Weiss, bom 
in Deutmannsdorf ; his mother Anna (nee) Anders, bom in Har- 
persdorf, and both were plain, poor and insignificant, as the world 
goes. George had a brother named Caspar, and a sister, Mary ; both 
died in Silesia in the bloom of youth. In 1715 he married. His 
wife was Anna (nee) Meschter, bom in Langen-Neundorff ; she 
accompanied him to this country, and died shortly after the landing 
at Philadelphia. She is buried there in the Pilgrims' cemetery. 
They had an infant son whom they named Abraham, who was taken 
from them in his second year. So that in this country he was 
quite poor and alone, a plain man and, as the world goes, unim- 
portant. But because he exhibited a seemly zeal for the Holy 
Scriptures, and was minded to please God and honor Him (although 
in great frailty and in the face of many obstacles) God vouchsafed 
to him in magnificent measure a talent for interpreting Holy Writ, 
for disclosing the mysteries of God and for disceming sound Chris- 
tian doctrine, in these latter doubtful days. * * * For this rea- 
son, he was chosen as our head (regarding ourselves as a congr^;a- 

• Then, a private burying-ground. Now the cemetery of the Lower Salford 
Schwenkfelder church. 

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tion), as our chief in our Confession of Faith, as our leader in 
Christian living, and as the guide of our youth. Thereby we attested 
that his qualification for these duties was recognized. And having 
(in accordance with his judgment, and after consultation with his 
conscience and long agonizing before God) arranged a plan for re- 
ligious services and an order of worship, and having manifested 
therewith such a zeal for God that certain signs and indications ap- 
peared of the correctness of such a course, the direct course to 
salvation through penitence ; namely, a full apprehension and morti- 
fication of our depravity, in true humility, sorrow and prayer; self- 
sacrifice and surrender to the will of God, and the daily renewal of 
these things ; the zealous practice of Scriptural discipline, with daily 
supplication for the unlocking of the divine mysteries and for grace 
for the mending and renewing of our lives, under the direction of 

the Scriptures having conducted such a ministry for four years, 

with a true passion for God and the salvation of men, during the 
last year his strength failed appreciably, and a subsequent illness 
warned him of his approaching end. But in spite of his frailty he 
continued zealous, in as far as this was at all possible, up to a week 
before his death, when he became confined to his bed. His illness 
was chiefly of the nature of exhaustion, with some pleurisy (it was 
said to be gastric fever). He had no desire for food and suffered 
intense pains in the abdomen. And thus on the eleventh of March, 
1740, in full possession of his faculties and in the fifty-third year 
of his age, he was called away, and his body was conveyed to its 
interment. He is buried at Schippach on a plot of ground belonging 
to George Yeakel." 

The relation which George Weiss sustains to the h)rmnody 
of the Schwenkfelders is three- fold : First, as a writer of hymns ; 
second, as a reviser of hymns ; and third, as a transcriber and com- 
piler. Of his activity as a hymn writer, barely an outline can 
be given here; to wit, (i) "(^sange uber die Evangelia" (1709) 
— ^metrical versions of the "(K>spel Lessons" for the entire eccle- 
siastical year; (2) "Meditationes" {^ca, 1724 — 30),® being sev- 

• Each proper name treated is given in Hebrew, Greek, Latin and German. 
Then follow the references containing the Biblical account of the character 
under consideration. Then the "Meditatio" in the form of a hymn. 

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eral series of hymns based on the names of numerous Bible 
characters — ^the patriarchs, the prophets, the genealogy of Qirist 
as given in Matthew, the genealogy of Christ as recorded by 
Luke, and the apostles — each group becomes the basis of a series 
of hymns; and (3) his revision of the hymns of Daniel Suder- 
mann.'' This revision consisted of a restrophicising of a number 
of the Sudermann hymns, and the addition, to the majority of 
the hymns, of one or more strophes intended as a prayer 

Of the hymnological studies of George Weiss — studies that 
were both extensive and productive of valuable information — 
our space forbids us to speak. Neither does this phase of his 
activity properly belong to the scope of the present work. It 
is in his role as the promoter of the work begun by Caspar 
Weiss, his father, that he demands consideration here. It was 
about the year 1726, when George Weiss took up the task of re- 
arranging and enlarging the hymn collection of 1709. The ad- 
dition which was at this time made to the original collection, 
was composed chiefly of three series of hymns; each complete 
in itself and written by as many authors. The series in question 
were: (i) The hymns of Daniel Sudermann which Weiss had 
revised — a series of hymns interpreting the Song of Solomon; 
(2) the "Epistel-lieder" so-called, by Balthaser Hoffmann — ^be- 
ing a series of metrical versions of the "Epistle-lessons," com- 
plete for the church year; (3) the "Meditationes," which we 
have already characterized. The other hymns added by George 
Weiss to the first collection constitute a miscellany representing 
various Moravian and Lutheran hymn writers, as well as the 
early church fathers. The complete list of the hymns of this 
miscellany, which had been prepared for this chapter, it has 
been necessary to omit. 

With respect to the plan of arrangement, it should be noted 
that the compilation made by George Weiss differs from that 

' The Sudermann hymns based on the Song of Solomon. See. our De- 
scriptive Bibliography. 

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of 1709 in two important features: First, the hymns selected 
for each Sunday and holy day are further arranged into four 
groups having the titles "Fruhe," "Vor-Mittage," "Nach-Mit- 
tage** and "Kinder-Lehr," the second and third of these groups 
corresponding to the two-fold division of the collection of Cas- 
par Weiss; second, the individual hymns are classified on the 
basis of metrical structure — as far as was practicable, hymns 
with the same type of verse and the same or a similar strophic 
structure, having been grouped together. Moreover, verse for 
verse, the syllables were carefully counted in order to exclude 
entirely the hiatus and to leave not a hymn with an imperfect 
line.® As hinted above, the arrangement of the hymn-groups by 
Sundays and holy days — one characteristic, as we have seen, of 
the original compilation — was retained by the second compiler. 
In the earliest manuscript of this collection known to exist 
there are, unfortunately, missing from the preface those pages 
which contained the compiler's own account of the sources with 
which he was operating when enlarging the original collection. 
However, the loss is luckily repaired in part by the following 
account of the second compilation, extant in the already cited 
surviving manuscript of Balthaser Hoffmann. The passage con- 
tains, also, Hoffmann's statement of the re-arrangement which 
the first collection underwent in the hands of George Weiss, the 
second compiler. We quote Hoffmann in full : 

"Lange damach • und nach Caspar Weissens Tode, und beson- 
ders zur Zeit des Mission,^^ meditirte und schrib auff, George Weiss 
di Meditationes iiber di Nahmen der Geschlechte in Matheo und 
Luca, und di andern Nahmen; welche er erst in Sachsen, nach der 
ersten Emigration ^^ verfertigte. Damach in Sachsen, in der Stille 

•The natural word-stress is frequently disregarded — in accordance with 
the literary traditions of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, when such 
verse was not considered imperfect. Compare the "Knittelvers" of Hans 

•i. e,, after 1709. In the Hoffmann manuscript this citation is a continua- 
tion of the one given on page 63f. 

*• The Jesuit Mission in Silesia. Opened in the year 1719. 

"The Schwenkf elders (about 170 families), to escape the net of the 

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und fiir sich, zu einer Hauss-Ubung, weil er still und geruhig lebte, 
und den Sonntag und di Zeit der Feyer suchte anzuwenden, und eine 
Ubung zu haben, hat er das erste Werk vermehret, und in Vier sonn- 
tagliche Abtheilungen geordnet, wi es nun am Tage ligt ; auch kamen 
dehmahls dazu, di Lider iiber di Episteln,^* welche Vermehrung 
auch in der Vorrede weiter mit gedacht ist; hat auch dahmahls di 
Bitten zum Beschluss der Lider Daniel Sudermanns gestellet. Nun 
ist aber bey dieser Ordnung, und Eintheilung der Lider zu merken, 
dass er di Absicht nicht hat gehabt dabey, dass es zu einer Nachmach- 
ung seyn soil (wi nun gefolget ist) ob es auch wohl bey seiner Leb- 
ens-Zeit (auch ich selber) abgescriben ; sondem er pflegte es zu seiner 
Obung in der Stille; und nahm Vor-Mittage und Nach-Mittage, di 
Bekantesten ; zu den andem zwey Abtheilungen aber di Fremdesten. 
Und zwar ordnetc er es, dass wi weit es mochte angehen, eine gleiche 
Vile ^' im Singen war ; daher zehlete er di Syllabon an den Gesan- 
gen, und nahm denn einen Gesang hiher, und einen andem dorthin ; 
daher ist geschehen, dass di Lehre der Gesange, denn nicht auiFein- 
ander zustimmet. Sonst weiss ich wohl, dass wenn er gewust, dass es 
solte zu einem daurenden Werke seyn, er es wiirde anders einge- 
richtet haben; wi er auch einmahl zu mir gesaget: Wenn ichs izt 
solte einrichten, es konte s^yn, dass manch Lid nicht dazu kame. 
Discs hinterlasse ich nicht, um G. Weissens Werk zu tadeln, oder 
untiichtig zu machen, sondem um richtiges Wissens Willen. B. H. 

Translation : 

"Long afterwards and after the death of Caspar Weiss, and 
especially at the time of the Mission, George Weiss wrote his "Medi- 
tationes" on the names of the generations in Matthew and Luke, 
and the other names. Not until after the first emigration, in Saxony, 
were they completed. Thereafter in Saxony, privately, and for his 
own use and that of his household, because he led a quiet life and 

Jesuits, fled to Silesia by night in 1726, escaping to the Oberlausitz in Saxony. 
Here they were protected by G>unt von Zinzendorf, the Moravian bishop, for 
8 years. 

" Written by Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann. 

""Count" or number of syllables. Daniel Sudermann occasionally uses 
this feminine noun, "die Vile" (= number or large number). Cf. Wacker- 
nagel, I, 683. 

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sought to make good use of Sundays and holydays, and also for the 
training, he enlarged the first collection, making a fourfold division 
of the h)mins for each Sunday, as it still exists. At that time the 
hymns on the Epistle lessons also were added; and this augmenta- 
tion receives further mention in the preface. He also wrote at this 
time the prayer strophes intended as addenda to the h)mins of Daniel 
Sudermann. But with regard to the arrangement of this collection, 
it should be noted, that he had no thought that it would be imitated 
(as has been the case), although it was transcribed in his life-time, 
and I too have transcribed it ; but he prepared it for his own private 
use. And for the divisions "Vor-Mittage" and "Nach-Mittage" he 
chose the more familiar, for the other two divisions however the 
less familiar hymns. And furthermore he arranged it in such a way 
that, as far as might be practicable, there would be a imiform metre 
for the singing of the h)mins. Accordingly he counted the syllables, 
and placed one hymn here and another there, with the result that the 
h3mins in the matter of theme have no sequence. For I well know, 
that if he had known that it was destined to be a permanent work, 
he would have arranged it diflferently. Indeed he said to me at one 
time: *If I were to arrange it now, it might be that a number of the 
hymns would not be included.' This I submit, not to censure or to 
ccMidemn the work of George Weiss, but for the sake of exact 

Summarizing, now, with respect to constituency and size, 
the collection of George Weiss was composed of: (i) The 
entire collection of 1709, numbering 874 hymns; (2) the Suder- 
mann hymns as revised by Weiss — ^230 in nimiber; (3) the 
"Epistel-lieder," by Hoffmann, 106 hymns; (4) the "Medita- 
tiones'' by the compiler himself, 178 hymns; and (5) 171 hymns 
of a miscellaneous character. Total, 1559 hymns. *^ Such was 
the Schwenkfelder hymn collection as it came from the hands of 
Rev. George Weiss. It was completed on the eve of the depar- 
ture of the Schwenkfelders from Saxony. In September of the 
year 1734, with its author it reached the genial land of Penn; 
and for upwards of thirty years it served as the hymnary of the 

"Compare with this, The Schwenkfelders in Pennsylvania, p. 107. 

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sect, furnishing the hymns sung at their gatherings for religious 
worship, at the meetings of their youth for "Kinderlehr" and 
at the annual observance of "Gedaechtnisstag." In our next 
chapter we shall see that before the appearance (1762) of the 
first hymn-book of the Schwenkfelders printed in America, their 
manuscript hymn collection was destined to be once more re- 
arranged, although after 1734 it was augmented but little while 
it remained in manuscript. 

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Balthaser Hoffmann, Christopher Hoffmann 
AND Hans Christoph Huebner. 

It is our purpose to treat here in brief the matter of how 
the Schwenkf elder hymn-collection, founded by Caspar Weiss and 
enlarged by George Weiss, came to undergo a thorough rewriting 
in point of arrangement, but a few years before it was chosen 
as the basis for the printed h)min-book. In this connection it 
will be necessary to discuss the relation of three immigrant 
Schwenkf elders to the evolution of the Saur edition. They are : 
Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann, Rev. Christopher Hoffmann, his son, 
and Hans Christoph Hubner. The matter of the relation to 
each other of the three folio volumes of the years 1758, 1759 
and 1760 is also a part of our problem in this chapter. 

Balthaser Hoffmann.^ 

This account of Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann is limited to, first, 
his activity as a writer of hymns and transcriber of hymns 
and, second, his studies of hymns. The works cited herewith 
should be consulted for fuller biographical information concern- 
ing this eminent Schwenkfelder poet and theologian. We shall 
first recount, summarily, his interest and participation in the pro- 
moting of the Schwenkfelder hymn-coUectioa 

In earlier chapters, we learned from Hoffmann's own pen, 
that he was thoroughly familiar with the circumstances of the 
origin of the parent collection of 1709, and that he himself made 
a transcription of the same immediately upon its completion. In- 
deed, it is not unlikely that he rendered assistance to Caspar Weiss 
by copying hymns for the collection. From his accoimt of both 
the first and the second collection, already cited, it is also evident 
that he was in close personal association with the author of the 

* Cf. Genealogical Record of the Schwenkf elders, pp. xvi. and 5-9. The 
Schwenkfelders in Pennsylvania, pp. 20-23 and i88ff. 


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"Evangelia-lieder/* the "Meditationes" and the revised Suder- 
mann hymns, when these series were being written. He had 
learned by personal inquiry, the purpose of George Weiss in ar- 
ranging the second compilation on the basis of metre, and had 
conversed with him respecting the misfortune of the choice of this 
system of arrangement, in view of the fact that the compilation 
had become the accepted hymnary of the sect. It was Hoffmann 
also who had contributed to the second collection, the "Epistel- 
lieder" complete pro anno ccclesiastico — ^the idea of the series 
having been suggested by the "Evangelia-Iieder" of his friend 
Weiss. Moreover, Hoffmann made a transcription of the second 
hymn-collection, as he had done in the case of the first. 

However, as the head of the Schwenkfelder ministeriiun 
(in this capacity, Hoffmann succeeded Rev. George Weiss, 
serving until 1763) he had found the collection unhappily ar- 
ranged, since it was altogether deficient in the matter of arrange- 
ment as to sequence of doctrine. It is further evident, that in 
this particular, Hoffmann regarded the compilation as unsuited 
to the purposes of a church hymnary. As such, it needed to 
undergo a thorough recompiling ; and in the volumes listed in our 
second chapter for the years 1758 and 1759, we have carried into 
effect, the rearrangement which without doubt Hoffmann for 
some years had had in mind. 

The study of hymns was for Balthaser Hoffmann an em- 
ployment which he loved. Occasionally on "Gedachtnisstag"^ 
he would present the study of a favorite hymn. His analyses of 
numerous hymns have been preserved. They reflect both intens- 
ity of method and an amazing wealth of meditations. They are 
worthy of a close homiletic study. Rev. Christopher Hoffmann 
made a selection of these studies, of which the list follows : ^ 

"The Memorial Day of the Schwenkf elders, observed annually on the 
24th of September and commemorating the landing at Philadelphia, 1734. 

• From a manuscript in folio now in the possession of Hon. S. W. Penny- 
packer, lL D., who most kindly placed it at the disposal of the present 
writer. The title of the volume follows : 

Erbauliche imd Nutzliche/ Betrachtungen./ Welche der treue und ein- 
faltige Zeuge Gottes, Je-/ su Christi, und seiner reinen Wahrheit/ Balthaser 

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Title Page of Hymn-Book. Written by Hans Christoph Hubner. 

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I. Bedencken fiber das Lied : Glaubige Seel ! schau dein Heir. 

II. Kurtzes Summarium eines Bedenckens, iiber den 7. 8. und 
9. Vers des Liedes : Ein Kind ist uns gebohren heut. 1746. 

III. Summarium eines Bedenckens, aus dem Liede. Lobsinget 
all mit Freuden. 1747. 

IV. Kurtzer Begrieff des Inhalts einer Betrachtung iiber das 
Lied : Schau siindiger Mensch ! wer du bist. 1742. 

V. Kurtze Vorstellung fiber das Lied : Jesus Christus lied den 
Tod. 1742. 

VI. Kurtzer Auszug eines Bedenckens, fiber das Lied: Freuet 
euch heut allegleich. 1747. 

VII. Bedencken fiber 5. Verse aus dem Liede: Frolock heut 
Christglaubige Seel. 1748. 

VIII. Bedencken fiber etliche Vorstellungen an Christo. Aus 
dem Liede: Jesus Christus lied den Tod. 1743. 

IX. Kurtzer Auszug fiber einige Betrachtungen vom heiligen 
Geiste, aus dem Liede: O Gott Schopffer heiliger Geist. 1747. 

X. Bedencken fiber das Lied: Der Mensch hat einen grossen 
Schatz. 1751. 

XI. Summarisches Bedencken fiber den iten Vers des Liedes: 
Der Mensch hat einen grossen Schatz. 1747. 

XII. Eine kurtze Erklarung, zu mehrem und reicherm Ver- 
stande des Liedes : Schonster Jesu ! Konig der Ehren. 1766. 

XIII. Kurtzes Bedencken, zu einer Anweisung, fiber das Lied : 
O glaubigs Hertze benedey. 1746. 

XIV. Kurtze Anweisung und Bedencken, fiber das Lied: 
Mensch ! Erheb dein Hertz zu Gott. 1746. 

XV. Betrachtung fiber das Lied : Last uns folgen sanct Pauli 
Lehr. 1750. 

XVI. Bedencken fiber einige Verse aus dem Liede : Menschen 
Kind was brfist du dich. 

XVII. Vier Betrachtungen, aus dem Liede: Ey last uns jetzt 

Hoffmann/ in Pennsilvanien von Anno 1737- bisz Anno 1768./ Geschrieben./ 
Bestehend in dreyen Theilen./ Der I. Theil enthalt:/ Betrachtungen fiber 
heilige Schrifft, altes und neues Testa-/ ments, sowol fiber gantze Capitel, 
als auch fiber Verse/ aus derselben./ Der II. Theil enthalt:/ Andere nutz- 
liche Betrachtungen und Bekantnisse./ Der III. Theil enthalt :/ Betrachtungen 
fiber Lieder./ Auch mit zwey nutzlichen Registem versehen./ Gesammlet und 
zusammen getragen von/ Christoph Hoffmann/ M.DCC. XCV. 

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At the time of the publication of the Saur edition, Balthascr 
Hoffmann had a more intimate knowledge of the hymn-collec- 
tions of Caspar Weiss and George Weiss, both as to their his- 
tory and their content, than any other Schwenkfelder living. 
In 1753 he had completed a transcription of the George Weiss 
collection, enriching the value of the collection for devotional 
use with interpretations and Scripture references. At this time 
he had also carefully recorded the facts of the origin of this 
collection, then the hymnary of the sect in manuscript. He was 
well informed with regard to the work of Caspar Weiss and 
that of George Weiss in the textual criticism of numerous hymns 
of the Schwenkf elder collection, and in 1754 had written an ex- 
planation of the motives by which these compilers had been 
actuated in venturing upon the work of textual revision. From 
1740-1763, he filled the pastoral office of the Schwenkfelders — 
the period during which the hymn-book of the Bohemian Breth- 
ren passed out of use, and the publication of a hymn-book by 
and for the Schwenkfelders had been discussed, undertaken 
and realized. Moreover, documentary evidence is not wanting 
that Balthaser Hoffmann had long felt keenly the need of a 
printed Schwenkfelder hymn-book, and that he was a leader in 
the movement for the publication of it. Of the hymns by Bal- 
thaser Hoffmann contained in the Saur edition, twelve, includ- 
ing the hymn which heads the collection, were written while the 
hymn-book was in process of publication. 

We give here, in translation and somewhat abridged, the 
biographical account of Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann written by 
Rev. Christopher Hoffmann, his son:* 

"Balthaser Hoffmann was bom in the year 1687 in Harpers- 
dorf, Principality of Liegnitz, Silesia, of poor plain and unpretending 
parents, and was brought up in such traditions. He was employed 
in Harpersdorf, especially in winter, as a weaver; at other times, 
however, frequently as a day laborer. In stature, he was a tall man, 
rather slender, his face longish and thin; and after his fiftieth year 

* Ibidem. 

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his hair grew entirely white. £ven at an early age he had both a 
bent and a zeal for learning the ancient languages ; and by his inde- 
fatigable diligence and the assistance of good books (which how- 
ever were not plentiful, because his means were insufficient to pro- 
cure them) he succeeded in acquiring a fair mastery of Latin, Greek 
and Hebrew, so that he knew these languages. Besides he had both 
the inclination and concern to devote himself to the Scriptures, in 
order to acquire the correct understanding of them ; to this end his 
knowledge of the languages was extremely useful and serviceable, 
since by this means he was able to examine the original text of the 
Scriptures, so that this knowledge was of great assistance for the 
better understanding of them. He was also zealous in the practice 
of Christian doctrine, and in the confession of the untainted truth 
revealed by God through Caspar Schwenkfeld, desiring to apprehend 
and to comprehend it accurately and unalloyed. And this God 
granted him, so that he obtained an abounding knowledge of it. 
Moreover, all his life he kept a watchful eye upon it, to keep it 
pure and to avoid mingling with it accessory doctrines. * * * 

"Upon his safe arrival in Philadelphia, he did not long remain 
in the city, but went into the country and, in accordance with the 
custom there, founded a home, since God had again blessed him so 
that he and his family could once more live peaceably. Moreover, 
his study of the Scriptures and Christian doctrine he at no time 
neglected, but devoted himself to them with the utmost diligence. 
And his liberty in Pennsylvania was to him a particularly momentous 
matter, which he regarded as a great divine favor and gift, be- 
stowed upon the untainted testimony of the truth, that it might be 
cherished and practiced without hindrance. 

"When to George Weiss had been assigned the charge of hold- 
ing public worship, as well as the performance of the marriage 
ceremony, the preaching of the Word at burial services and the 
catechising of the children ; and when in 1740 George Weiss quite 
unexpectedly heard the last summons, these duties were entrusted 
to him (Balthaser Hoffmann), even though a few tunes he secured 
release. Especially in 1749, when on his chest and in his bronchial 
tubes he had a sensation which made breathing difficult, and this 
gradually became worse until both singing and speaking were un- 
endurable. But in each instance he was again applied to, particu- 

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larly to conduct the public services and catechise the children, by 
reason of his capability, which was divinely bestowed. And this he 
did, until on account of old age he was no longer able. * * * 

"In 1774, December twenty-first, he was attacked with vertigo, 
which left him quite weak. Repeated attacks followed at intervals 
of about two weeks leaving him every time in greater weakness. 
* * * On the eleventh of July 1775, we observed that he was 
even weaker than usual and that his feebleness was increasing. This 
continued until he lost his speech, and a few hours before his 
departure consciousness left him. On the above mentioned day, in 
the afternoon at 5 o'clock, cabnly and but slightly disturbed, in the 
eighty-ninth year of his age, he fell asleep. The Lord be praised for 
having thus summoned him, and grant that we may be saved and 
follow him. Amen. Written in the year 1777. Christoph Hoff- 

Rev. Christopher Hoffmann's earliest and most important 
contribution to Schwenkfelder hymnology was the manuscript 
hymn-book of 1760. A general characterization of this volume 
is contained in our Descriptive Bibliography. The pre-eminent 
feature of this hymn-book is the incorporation of the textual 
revision or "correction" of numerous hymns, made by Caspar 
Weiss and George Weiss. A detailed account of the nature and 
design of this textual study is included in the introduction. The 
hymns involved are principally those of the Bohemian Brethren. 
It appears that Caspar Weiss compared the hymns common to 
the various editions of the Bohemian hymn-book, ascertained the 
variant readings and then, whenever possible, restored the text 
of the earliest print of the hymn. If, in his opinion, the text 
was sectarian or otherwise open to criticism, he supplied his own 
revision. In the same way, George Weiss revised the non- 
Schwenkfelder hymns which he added to his father's collection. 
In the volume under discussion Christopher Hoflfmann has indi- 
cated and recorded about five hundred of these "corrections," 
by writing in the margin in each instance either the unrevised 
variant, or the initial of the corrector. The results of this work 
were applied in large measure in the editing of the printed hymn- 

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Manuscript Hymn-Book (1760). Written by Christoph Hoffmann. 

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book.* Another service performed by Christopher Hoffmann 
was the preservation, already noted, of many exegeses of hymns 
made by his father, Balthaser Hoffmann. Again, the manuscript 
appendix which many copies of the Saur edition contain, is his 
work. Following is the description of the hymn-book of 1760, 
written on a fly-leaf of the volume by its owner, Former Gov- 
ernor S. W. Pennypacker:® 

"This hymn-book of the Schwenckfelders, which may be said 
to represent the art of the Middle Ages, extended into the i8th 

Century and across the Atlantic is the best specimen of their 

manuscripts known to those familiar with the subject. It was writ- 
ten between 1758 and 1760 in Penna. and was bound here and the 
clasps and mountings were made here. Christoph Hoffman, who 
wrote it, came to Penna. at six years of age, so that his art was 
learned here. It is therefore, except as to the literature, purely a 
Penna. production. Hoffman was bom in 1728 and died Jany. 29, 
1804, so that when he undertook this task he was thirty years of 
age. He was a Schwenckfelder minister. 

"An account of the origin of this collection of hymns with a 
series of biographical sketches of the authors is given in the preface. 
The initials of the authors are written beside the hymns and are 
explained in the preface. Aurelius Prudentius, a pious Spaniard 
about A. D. 400, wrote a number of h)mins in Latin, which were 
translated into German by Adam Reissner. This and the hjmin 
book of the Picards or Bohemian Brethren, which was translated 
by Michael Weiss in 1531 and increased and corrected by Johan 
Horn, constituted the earliest and principal sources. Selections were 
also made from the hymns written by the Schwenckfelders Adam 
Reissner, Reimund Wecker, George Frell, Daniel Sudermann, An- 
tonius Oelsner, George Heydrick, Martin John and others, and by 
some of the Lutherans and Reformed. 

"Caspar Weiss, bom at Deutmansdorf in Silesia, and who mar- 
ried Anna, daughter of George Anders, made the collection in 1709 
for the use of his family and it was afterward adopted by the 
church. George Weiss, his son, born 1687 at Harpersdorf in Si- 

■ Compare with this, page xiv of the preface of the Saur edition. 
•Printed by permission. 

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lesia and who married Anna Meschter, the leader of the Schwenck- 
felder emigration and their first preacher here increased the col- 
lection in 1726 and arranged it in four parts. There are also some 
hymns written abroad and here by Balthaser Hoffman, father of 
Christoph, who was bom in 1686 and came to Penna. in 1734. 

"In the manuscript the letter 'A' signifies that the hymn is in its 
old form, 'C that it has been corrected by Caspar Weiss, and 'G' 
by George Weiss. In the Second Register the hynins collected by 
Caspar Weiss are designated by red capitals and those by George 
Weiss by black. This collection, which up to that time had re- 
mained in manuscript, formed the basis of the hymn-book printed 
by Saur in 1762. 

"On examining this manuscript we cannot help but feel the 
strongest admiration for the zeal and patience of the scribe, the 
neatness and excellence of his work, the strength and beauty of 
the binding, and the nice care with which the book has been pre- 
served through one hundred and twenty-one years in all its original 
freshness and purity. 

"Samuel W. Penn3rpacker, 

"Nov. 6, 1881." 

Hans Christoph Hiibner was born in 1721. His father was 
Christoph Hiibner and his mother Maria (nee Yeakel). He 
and his parents came to America in 1737. He is buried on the 
farm on which he lived, near the present Cedars, Montgomery 
County. The farm is now (1909) owned by William G. Freed. 
The writer is extremely glad of the opportunity to direct atten- 
tion to this neglected Schwenkfelder scribe, Hans Christoph 
Hiibner. In 1746 he married Barbara Schultz, who in 1734, at 
the age of 14 years, with her widowed mother had emigrated to 
America. Having attained the rank of a householder, he soon 
acquired prominence in the life of the church. For thirty years 
beginning (circa) 1745, he was active as a transcriber and com- 
piler. He wrote the three folio volumes of hymns dated 1758, 
1759 and 1765. In addition, three massive collections of sermons 
in folio, numerous quartos of hymns and of homiletic literature, 
and a great variety of additional volumes. In the quantity of 

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manuscript produced, he leads all the transcribers of the Schwenk- 
. f elders in America, admitting the possible exception of Rev. Balt- 
haser Hoffmann. It was he who executed (1758-59) the last re- 
arrangement of the Weiss hymn-collection, to which he added 
120 hymns. In the period 1 760-1 780, he was prominent in the 
movement for the organization of the sect, and was one of the five 
"Haus-vater" of the Lower District at whose homes in routine the 
Sunday meetings for worship were held. He was also a liberal 
contributor to the fund established (1764) for the founding and 
support of the school system inaugurated that year. Miss Flora 
Krauss Heebner, missionary of the Schwenkfelder Church, who 
is stationed at Shansi, China, and her brother, Rev. Harvey 
Krauss Heebner, pastor of the First Schwenkfeldian Church of 
Philadelphia, are lineal descendants of Hans Christoph Hiibner. 
He died at the age of 82 years. 

The story of the folio volumes bearing the dates of 1758 
and 1759, may be both simply and briefly told. In point of 
content, the former consists of the second collection, as compiled 
and arranged by George Weiss, excluding the "Psalm-Lieder," 
the "Biblische Geschichte," the Sudermann hymns based on the 
Song of Solomon, the "Meditationes,'* the "Evangelia-Gesange" 
and the "Epistel-lieder." Of these six series, three were included 
in the collection of 1709 and the others added by George Weiss. 
In a word, the manuscript hymn-book dated 1758 is composed of 
the miscellaneous hymns of the collection of Caspar Weiss and 
the miscellany of the George Weiss addition. These hymns, treat- 
ing exhaustively every phase of Christian doctrine, are grouped 
by the various articles ("Artickel") so-called, of the Christian 
creed and doctrine, consecutively presented. • Furthermore, the 
hymns of each "Artickel** are prefaced with a summary of the 
teaching they contain. Those hymns which are translations of 
hymns by the church- fathers, are in most cases given in parallel 
columns with their Latin originals. 

The re-distribution of the hymns having advanced this far, 
the task remained of submitting to a like arrangement the hymns 

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of the six distinct series named above. In the volume of the 
year 1759 jve find this work accomplished. These two volumes 
together comprise the Schwenkfelder hymn-collection in its final 
arrangement in manuscript. It is not surprising that the scribe 
remarks in the passage cited below, that he found the collection 
too massive to be bound into a single volume. The two volumes 
contain a total of more than twenty-two hundred pages in folio. 
The following excerpt, taken from the introduction of the manu- 
script volume of 1758, contains the author's own statement of 
the source of the hymns composing it: 

"Weil auf dem Titul-Blatt dieses Buches gemeldet ist, dass ein 
Verzeichniss oder Ordnung diesem Buche beygefiiget, nach welchem 
die Gesange (nach Belieben und Gefalligkeit) zu denen Evangelien 
auf alle Sonn- und Feyer-Tage durchs ganze Jahr, konnen betrach- 
tet werden : So wil ich hiebey erinnem, dass Caspar Weiss die Ge- 
sange gesammlet, und auss vielen Autoribus zusammen getragen, 
und, auf Begehren treuer Gemiither, auf die Sonntage geordnet hat, 
und zwar in zwey Abtheilungen, zu einer Ubung in der Stille daheim 
im Hause mit den Seinen zu gebrauchen (Anno 1709) : Und, dass 
die Gesange in diesem Buche, eben dieselben Gesange sind, die er 
also zusammen getragen; ohne die Psalmen, biblischen Geschichte, 
und Evangeliums-Gesange, welche zusammen in ein Buch allein 
sollen geschrieben werden.^ Weil auch ohne dem dieses Buch fast 
zu gross worden." • 

In the following passage, the author sets forth his object in 
submitting these hymns to a rearrangement : 

"Sintemal denn die heiligen Apostel und andere alte und Christ- 

liche Lehrer der Kirchen das Bekantniss dess Glaubens und die 

■gottselige Christliche Lehre, in unterschiedene Haubt-Puncte und 

Artickel verabfasset haben, zu einem Dienste fiir den ausem Men- 

'The manuscript hymn-book of the year I759 was the fulfilment of this 

•This citation mentions only the Caspar Weiss collection; but investiga- 
tion has shown that the miscellaneous portion of George Weiss*s addition is 
also incorporated in this volume. In fact, a few of the Psalm-lieder and also 
a niunber of the Meditationes found their way into this volume. 

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schen, dass er sich darinnen iibe, Gotte lerae erkennen, die Wercke 
Gottes betrachte, und eine Lehre habe sich in gottseligem, Christ- 
Hchem Wandel zu iiben. * * * Und weilen aber viele Christ- 
liche Autores, solche Haubt-Puncte oder Artickel der Christlichen 
Lehre meditirt und betrachtet, und in Reimen und geistliche Lieder 
verabfasset haben; und weilen die Christlichen Autores, so diese 
geistliche Lieder gedichtet, solche Lehre und Materien bedacht und 
Gesangs-Weise betrachtet haben: so hat man fur gutt und niitz 

geachtet auch sonderlich wegen der Jugend (weil durch Singen 

eine Sache auch leichter mag ins Gemiith und Gedachtniss bracht 
werden) dass solche Haubt-Articul oder die Christliche, apostolische 
Lehre mochte bekant, gefasset und geiibet werden, damit es ihr ein 

solcher Dienst und Handleitung mochte se)m solche Lieder, oder 

dieses Gesang-Buch nach den Haubt-Artickeln der Christlichen 
Lehre zu ordnen und einzutheilen : dass also auch die Lieder, nach 
deren Unterscheidung, leichter und besser mogen beg^ffen und 
verstanden werden. Und also sind die Artickel, so viel moglich, 
in Ordnung auf einander gesetzt : Und weil denn einige mehr oder 
weniger Lieder haben, so sind solche, so da viel Lieder haben und 
reich von Inhalt der Christlichen Lehre sind, wiederum in unter- 
schiedene Abtheilungen imterschieden : Wie denn auch eines jeden 
Artickels fiimehmster Inhalt zusammen in Kiirtze in ein Sum- 
marium verfasset und bey dess selben Anfang zu iinden ist." 

We give below the complete "Verzeichniss der Artickel" 
or table of contents of the manuscript hymn-book of 1758, first 
because this volume seems to have been compiled solely for the 
sake of the classification already discussed, and second, to antici- 
pate the fact of the similarity in arrangement between this volume 
and the printed hymn-book :* 


n. VoN Jesu Christo, seiner Person und Ammte; folget 

•A comparison has shown that most of the "articles" of this table were 
taken from the Moravian hymn-book, edition of 1566. A few appear to have 
been original with the author of the manuscript voltune in question. The 
order of the various rubrics has, however, been changed. 

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f Menschwerdung. 



OflFenbaning den Weisen. 

Opferung im Tempel. 
1 Flucht in Egipten. 
^ fjugend und Gewachse nach der Menscheit. 

Christi \ ^^^ ^^ Wandel, Tauffe, Anfechtungen, Predigten, 
jWunderwercken, und Beniff der Jiinger. 

Einzug gen Jerusalem. 

Leiden, Tod und Begrabniss. 



^ Erkantniss. 

III. VoM Heiligen Geiste. 

IV. Von der Schopffung. 

V. Von den Engeln. 
VL VoM Fall des Menschen. 

VII. Von den Zehn Gebotten. 

VIII. Von der Rechtfertigung. 

IX. Von DEM Glauben. 

X. Von der Busse. 

XI. VoM Gebet. 


XIII. Von Aposteln und Kirchen-Dienern. 

XIV. Von der Christlichen Kirchen. 

XV. Von der Tauffe. 

XVI. VomAbendmal. 

XVII. Von der Dancksagung. 

XVIII. Von den Heiligen. 

XIX. VoM Christlichen Leben. 

XX. VoM Creutz der Kirchen. 

XXI. Von der Kirchen Verwuestung. 

XXII. VoM Gebett fuer die Kirche. 

XXIII. Von Verneuerung der Kirchen. 

XXIV. Von der Oberkeit. 

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XXV. VoM Ehestand und der Kinder-Zucht. 

XXVI. VoM Tod und Sterben. 

XXVII. VoM Begraebniss. 

XXVIII. Von der Auferstehung und Juengsten Ge- 


XXIX. VoM EwiGEN Leben. 

XXX. Von der Ewigen Pein. 

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Christopher Schultz and the Printed Hymn-Book. 

We have seen that the Schwenkfelders were early aware of 
the importance attaching to the problem of a hymn-book ; and that 
their activity in the collecting of hymns dates from the sixteenth 
century. We have traced from its inception to its final form, the 
manuscript hymn collection which is entitled to the distinction of 
having been the first Schwenkfelder hymnary used in America. 
We have also observed in connection with our narrative of the 
manuscript collection, the presence of a well-defined continuity 
of development. In the present chapter, we shall endeavor to 
demonstrate that this continuity of development extended also 
into the first printed hymn collection issued in America — ^both 
the plan and the content of the printed hymnal exemplifying this 
progression. In a word, we are here concerned with the matter 
of the extent to which the NevrEingerichtetes Gesang-Buch 
(1762) is indebted to the manuscript volumes of 1758 and 1760, 
in point of arrangement, and to the second hymn collection as a 
whole, in point of content. At the close of the chapter, we print 
specimens of the Schwenkfelder hymns written in America. 

The first hymn-book of the Schwenkfelders printed in 
America, with the title NevrEingerichtetes Gesang-Buch, left the 
press of Christoph Saur at the close of the year 1762. It was a 
much needed book. The Schwenkfelders had brought with them 
to America nimierous copies of the Moravian hymn-book, but 
for years this had been used but little. Of their manuscript 
hymn collection, there were seemingly but three complete copies 
existing. Hence there was no want of occasion for the publish- 
ing of a hymn-book. 

The documentary information we possess, relative to the 
issuing of the Schwenkfelder hymn-book of 1762, is compara- 
tively scanty. However, from certain fragmentary records and 
from extant correspondence, we learn that the project had for 
some years been under consideration ; that previous to the prepara- 


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tion of the copy, provision was made to meet the expense of 
issuing; and that the publication was in charge of a representa- 
tive committee, Rev. Christopher Schultz having been commis- 
sioned with the function of editor. The following brief chronicle 
relating to the publication of said hymn-book, is taken from the 
so-called Historische Anmerkungen, a Schwenkfelder chronicle 
for the years 1750-1789, written — ^up to 1775 — ^by Rev. Chris- 
topher Schultz.* 

"1759 * * * Nachdem denn auch von geraumcr Zeit her 
manchmal davon geredet worden, wenn man ein Gesang-Buch vor 
unsz drukken lisse, das mochte ein ntitzliches Werk seyn, weil di 
Lider so wir brauchen, auserdem was etwan zusammen geschriben 
wird, in Zerstreuung ligen; auch di alten gedrukkten piccardischen 
Gesang-Bucher veralten und das Schreiben ein sehr beschwerliches 
und kostbahres Werk ist; so ist solches anjetzo wider aufs Tapet 
kommen, und endlich so fern gedihen, dasz von etlichen ein Plan ei- 
nes Formuls desselbigen, bearbeitet und vorgezeiget worden. Worzu 
sich denn so vile Subscribers gefunden, dasz beschlossen worden da- 
mit ans Licht zutretten und es drukken zulassen. 

"1760. Es hat aber unglaublich vil Miihe und Conferirens ge- 
kostet dasz man zu einem richtigen Formular gekommen ist, welches 
man in den Drukk geben wolte; also hat man sich dises und 
folgendes Jahr offte damit bemiihet, bisz es nach Beliben zu Stande 
gebracht worden. 

"1761. Der Drukker ist gar gemach damit zu Werke gegan- 
gen, weil er viel andcrs daneben gedrukkt; Es ist im Mittel des 
1761. Jahres damit angefangen imd erst zu Ausgang des 1762. Jah- 
res beschlossen worden." 

From the monograph by the Rev. J. H. Dubbs, D. D., LL. 
D., cited in our first chapter, we quote the following, relative to 
this hymn-book: "It is entitled Neu eingerichtetes Gesangbuch, 
in sich haltend eine Sammlung (mehrentheils alter) schoener 
Ichr-reicher und erbaulicher Lieder. We are careful to repeat 
the greater part of the title because there is no intimation 

*Cf. M. D. Learned: Historische Anmerkungen, A Schwenkfelder 
Chronicle. In Americana Germanica, Vol. II, No. i. 

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anywhere of the religious body for which the book was in- 
tended.^ It is a handsome duodecimo containing 917 hymns, 
which, according to the preface, are mostly derived from the 
hymn-books of the "Bohemian Brethren", though there is an 
appendix containing some of the best hymns of the Lutheran 
and Reformed churches. The preface is scholarly and the ar- 
rangement admirable. There is a three-fold index, of melodies, 
festivals and first lines. The index of hymns arranged according 
to the festivals not only indicates hymns proper to be sung on 
every Lord's Day in the year, but also for many saints* days 
which are not ordinarily observed by Protestants, and for six 
annual days of fasting and prayer. * * ♦ Notwithstanding 
certain imperfections, the Schwenkfelder hymn-book is, in our 
opinion, a publication of a very superior order, and a credit to 
the community that produced it." 

The scholarliness of the preface of said hymn-book is owed 
to Rev. Christopher Schultz, while the orderliness of its arrange- 
ment is in some measure to be placed to his credit. In a sketch 
of his life and literary activity ("Lebenslauf von Vater Christoph 
Schultz, Sr.") ^ written by David Schultz, his son, are included 
these few words relative to the authorship of the preface of this 
liymn-book : "Die Vorrede im alten Gesang-Buch, ist auch meh- 
rentheils sein Werck". We print below a letter of Christopher 
Schultz, which not only attests the fact that he, as editor, drafted 
the preface of the hymn-book in question, but which betrays also 
the editor's concern that the hymn-book should set a high stan- 
dard as to both orderliness and Christian doctrine, and should 
be serviceable as a text-book of uncolored Christian faith. The 
letter follows in full : * 

■This is an oversight. The Schwenkf elders were early called "Bekenner 
der Glorien Christi," "Confessors of the Glory of Christ." This name the 
full title of the hymn-book includes. 

■A copy of this sketch of "Vater" Schultz was furnished me by H. W. 

*The original is in the possession of Rev. E. E. S. Johnson. 

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Mn die Befdrderer unsers Gesang-Buchs:^ 
Werthe Freunde! Beyligend stellt sich euch ein Vorschlag 
fiir zu einer Vorrede des Gesang-Buchs woran wir schon ein Weil 
gearbeitet : Ich versehe mich ohngezweiffelt dasz ein Jeder di Wich- 
tigkeit der Vorrede erkennen und bedenken wird, und solches zu 
erinnern nicht nothig habe. Nur ist mein Begehren um solcher 
Wichtigkeit willen: Es woUe ein Jeder seinen treuen Fleisz daran 
wenden und disen Vorschlag welchen ob zwar gut gemeynet, Ich 
(meiner mir wol bewusten Unschiklichkeit und Wenigkeit nach) 
nicht fiir genugsam ausgeben kan, wol besehen und ermessen; zu 
samt den Umstanden worein wir unser Gesang-Buch stellen wenn 
wir damit ins Publicum tretten, was zu dessen niitzlichen Gebrauch 
und Verhinderung des Miszbrauchs und allerley Unrichtigkeit moch- 
te dinlich seyn an disem Ort beyzubringen beydes fiir di Unsrigen 
als auch di Auswartigen, auf welche letztere wir um des freyen 
Zeugnisses der Warheit willen, welches wir durch keine Ichheit 
einschlissen dorfften, nicht weniger zu sehen haben. Und was ihr 
also denn befinden mochtet dasz der Sache zu wenig oder zu vil ge- 
than sey oder hi und da mehr oder besser konne illustriret werden 
(wi ich denn auch achte dasz mit Schrifft Zeugnissen geschehen 
konte wo es anders euch gefallt) das woUe denn auch ein Jeder 
verzeichnen: Damit wir etwa ein mahl wenns euch gefallt uns 
samtlich daruber berathen mochten. Und ob ich wol auf Begehren 
disen Vorschlag verabfasset, und nach eigenem Bedenken einen Lauff 
des Vortrags erwahlet, so konte es doch seyn dasz Ihr andem oder 
Einiger von Euch einen andem Weg der Vorstellung belibete, wel- 
ches denn auch fiiglich zu bedenken ware, weil man ja nicht erman- 
geln solte weil es nun Zeit ist das schikklichste anzubringen. 

Und sollen Gotte bitten dasz er unsz bey diser raren Gelegen- 
heit, Gnade, Weiszheit und Verstand verleyen wolle ihm gefallig zu 
handeln. Wil also alles in weiter Bedenken empfohlen haben. 

d. 2ten May 1761. C. S." 

We shall now take up the question of the relation of the 
classification of the printed hymn-book, to that of the manuscript 
volumes of 1758 and 1760. In this, as in the choice of the 

* Addressed, in all probability, to the committee in charge of the publica- 
tion of the hymn-book. 

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hymns, Christopher Schultz drew freely from the Schwenk- 
f elder manuscript hymn collection and its predecessor, the hymn 
boc4c of the Moravians. In our preceding chapter we gave the 
complete **Verzeichniss der Artickel" of the manuscript volume 
of 1758. For the purposes of a comparison in point of rubric, 
we give in this connection the summary of contents ("Verzeich- 
nis und Ordnung") of the Saur edition. Following the table 
here given, is a statement of the correspondences between the 
two tables. The articles marked thus (*) constitute the rubrics 
added by Schultz. 

der TITEL derer MATERIEN davon DIE LIEDER handeln. 

I. Theil. 



Von Gott 

UND Seinem Wesen. 


Empfaengnis und Menschwerdung. 













Von Christi 


Leben und Wandel. 




Leiden und Tod. 









XVI. VoM Heiligen Geiste. 

II. Theil. 
I. Von der Schopffung. 
II. Von den Engeln. 

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III. VoM Fall des Menschen. 

IV. Von den Heiligen Zehn Gebotten. 
V. VoM Glauben. 

VI. Von der Busse. 
VII. VoM Gebaet. 
VIII. VbM Verlangen nach Gott.* 
IX. Von der Liebe zu Gott.* 
X. Von der Rechtfertigung. 
XI. Lobgesaenge.* 
XII. VoM Christlichen Wandel. 

XIII. Von der Nachfolge Jesu.* 

XIV. Von Verleugnung Sein Selbst und der Welt.* 
XV. VoM Christlichen Streit.* 

XVI. VoM Vertrauen auf Gott.* 
XVII. Von Guten Wercken.* 
XVIII. Von Anfechtung Noth und Truebsal.* 
XIX. Trost-Lieder.* 
XX. Von der Hoffnung der Seligkeit.* 


XXII. Von den Aposteln und Kirchen-Dienern. 

XXIII. Von der Kirche. 

XXIV. Von den Einsetzungen Christi. 

1. Von der Heiligen Tauffe. 

2. VoM Heiligen Abendmahl. 
XXV. Von den Heiligen. 

XXVI. VoM Creutz der Kirchen. 
XXVII. Von der Kirchen- Verwuestung. 
XXVIII. Gebaet fuer die Kirche. 
XXIX. Von der Oberkeit. 
XXX. VoM Ehstand und Kinder-Zucht. 
XXXI. VoM Tod und Sterben. 
XXXII. Beym Begraebnis. 


XXXIV. Von der Ewigen Pein. 
XXXV. VoM Ewigen Leben. 

It will be observed that the ''Artickel" or "Titel" com- 
posing part I. of the Saur edition are essentially a taking-over of 

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the first three "Artickel'* of the volume of 1758 — ^the sub- 
divisions of II. having become co-ordinate articles in the printed 
hymn-book. At the beginning of part 11. are placed in order, 
articles IV. to XL inclusive of the "Verzeichniss" of 1758 — 
excepting VIII. which is given a new position. The remaining 
19 articles of the volume of 1758 correspond in order to articles 
XXL— XXXV. inclusive of part II. of the Schultz hymn- 
book, with but two differences: XVIL and XXIII. not having 
been included among the rubrics of the Saur edition, and XIX. 
**Vom Christlichen Leben," having become "Vom Christlichen 
Wandel" (11. Theil, XIL). Articles VIII. and IX., XL, and 
XIII.-XX. (II. Theil) are the rubrics added by Schultz. 

There is also a striking correspondence between the printed 
hymn-book and the volumes of 1758 and 1760 — in the ar- 
ticles common to both — with respect to the hymns classified 
under a given rubric, as well as to the order in which they are 
arranged. Former Governor Pennypacker was impressed with 
this correspondence between the manuscript collection and the 
Saur edition, and without hesitation, noted on a fly-leaf of the 
volume of 1760 the following, relative to this matter: "This 
collection, which up to that time had remained in manuscript, 
formed the basis of the hymn-book printed by Saur in 1762." 
We have attempted below to illustrate the correspondence, by 
tabulating the hymns comprising a characteristic **Articker' of 
the manuscript collection with those of the corresponding rubric 
in the Saur edition. The hymns marked thus (*) are found in 
both volumes, but differ as to position in the group. A blank line 
indicates the absence of a corresponding hymn. The parenthesis 
following each line, indicates the number of strophes. 

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Still another peculiarity of the manuscript collection is re- 
flected in the Saur edition. The rubrics comprising a large num- 
ber of hymns are further divided into "Abtheilungen" so-called. 
Furthermore, in both the manuscript collection and the printed 
volume, each "Artickel" and "Abtheilung" is prefaced with a 
brief stunmary of the doctrine which the hymns set forth. The 
language of these prefatory remarks is, moreover, frequently 
identical. Schultz's apology for introducing this innovation into 
a printed hymn-book, follows : ^ 

"Allhier ist dieses sonderlich zu melden, dasz eben auch um 
bessera B^frifFs und Verstandlichkeit willen und der Einfalt zu 
dienen, noch nebst dem Tittel einer jeden Rubrique (etliche wenige 
ausgenommen) ein.kurtzes Summarium enthalten ist, welches an- 
zeiget, worauf eigentlich die Lieder in ihrem Vortrag sehen ; da man 
denn auch zugleich das Gemercke mit dahin gehabt, dasz derselben 
Ordnung gemass, wie solches Summarium redet, und ein Stiicke des 
Inhalts nach dem andem setzet, also auch die Lieder einander nach 
zu stehen kommen sind, damit ein aufmercksames fleissiges Ge- 
miith, desto eher an die Materie kommen konne, wovon es belieben 
mochte haben, ein Lied zu singen. ♦ ♦ ♦ Wenn denn aber, 
derer Summarien bey manchen Rubriquen was viel haben werden 
wollen, so hat man sie nach fiiglichen Unterschieden abgetheilet, 
und solche Abtheilungen aus eiander gcsetzet, dass die Lieder derer 
unterschicdlichen Abtheilungen nicht verwechselt, sondem eine jede 
Abtheilung ihre Lieder so gleich unter sich stehen habe. Von wcl- 
cher, obwohl in Gesangbiichem biszher ungewohnlichen Arbeit, man 

hoffet, dasz Niemand einigen Schaden hingegen aber manches 

einen guten Nutzen und Dienst haben wird." 

In concluding our discussion of the features of the Saur 
edition traceable to the manuscript hymn-book, we wish to make 
a few additional observations. The greater number of the hymns 
of the printed hymn-book are contained in the manuscript col- 
lection also. However, many of these hymns are found in the 
Moravian hymn-book as well, and it is sometimes impossible to 

'From the preface of the Saur edition, p. xix.f. 

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' xjjt. .MKm"'::M^ [^.itwl 

Specimen Page of Hymn-Book by Christoph Hoffmann. 
(Showing a Hymn by Balthaser Hoffmann.) 

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determine whether a given h)ann has been taken from the manu- 
script collection or from its original source, the Moravian h3min- 
book; since the three different texts exhibit no important variants. 
Nevertheless, the frequent appearance in the Saur edition of 
variant readings introduced by Caspar Weiss and George Weiss; 
seems to indicate that with respect to even these hymns, the 
manuscript collection served Schultz as both a standard and a 
source. ? ' ''^ 

The hymns comprising the printed h3min-book number 917. 
Of these 591 were contained in the parent collection made by 
Caspar Weiss (1709). Of the remaining 326, 165 were in- 
cluded in the addition made to the collection of 1709 by George 
Weiss. There were therefore i6i hymns incorporated into the 
Saur edition which were not contained in the manuscript hymn 
collection in either its first or its second form, and which must 
therefore have been obtained from other sources. 

We list here the hymn writers of the Schwenkfelders in 
America. Weiss, Hoffmann and Wagner wrote hymns abroad 
as well as in this country. 

George Weiss, 1687-1740. 

Balthaser Hoffmann, 1687-1775. 

David Seibt, 1691-1765. 

Caspar Kribel, (?)-i77i. 
Abraham Wagner,* ca. 171 5-1763 

Christoph Schultz, 1718-1789. 

Christoph Kribel,* 1720-1800. 

Rev. George Meschter, M. D. 1840. 

The list of h3rmn writers of the Saur edition includes the 
following Schwenkfelders. We indicate also the number of 
hymns of each admitted to the collection: Adam Reissner 5, 
Valentin Triller 15, Bemhard Herxheimer i, Daniel Sudermann 
47, George Frell 20, George Heydrich i, Martin John 30, George 

•Physician. Resided on the farm now (1909) the home of Elwood W. 
Anders. Is buried in the Methatchen cemetery, near Fairview Village, Pa. 
• Sec The Schwenkfeldian, May 1908. 

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Weiss 26, Balthaser Hoffmann 38, David Seibt i, Caspar Kribel 
7, Abraham Wagner 34, Christoph Schultz 7, Christoph Kribel 

Numerous copies of the Schwenkf elder hymn-book of 1762 
contain a manuscript appendix following the indexes. It is in 
two parts. The first part consists of three biographical lists. Of 
these, the first is a transcription of the biographical sketches con- 
tained in the hymn-book of the Bohemian Brethren published 
1639 — the list to which we have already called attention, in 
our description of said hymn-book. The second is a similar 
biographical list of the Schwenkfelder hymn writers, and the third 
an account of the Lutheran and Reformed hymn writers, repre- 
sented in the new hymn-book. The second part of this manuscript 
appendix is a complete alphabetical list of the authors of the 
printed hymn-book. In most of the copies which contain this 
appendix, the initials of the authors are given in manuscript above 
the hymns. These manuscript addenda are the work of Rev. 
Christopher Hoffmann, the bookbinder of the Schwenkfelders, 
and are usually in his handwriting. 

The following three hymns are given as specimens of the 
Schwenkfelder hymns written in America. The author of the 
first hymn was Abraham Wagner. The author of the second 
was Rev. Balthaser Hoffmann. The last hymn is by Rev. George 
K. Meschter, M. D. It was written, July 1904, on the occasion 
of the departure of Miss Flora Krauss Heebner for her mission- 
ary work in Shansi, China. 


Ach, allerhoechstes Guth ! 
O liebens-wuerdigs Wesen ; 
Gott Vater, Sohn und Geist, 
In welchem wir genesen ; 
Wer wolf nicht lieben Dich, 
Und loben allezeit? 
Du bist das ewig Heil, 
Und all Vollkommenheit. 

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Gott Vater ! gross von Macht, 
Von Liebe und Erbarmen: 
Gabst deinen Sohn in Tod, 
Aus liebe zu uns Armen. 
Du SchoepfFer aller Ding! 
Wir niehmen deine Werck: 
Dein Weiszheit, Heiligkeit, 
Dein Gnade, KrafFt und Staerck. 

Gott Sohn, Herr Jesu Christ! 
Aus Liebe Mensch gebohren ; 
Hast uns aus Lieb erloest, 
Da wir waren verlohren. 
Lob sey Dir, Gottes-Lamm ! 
Unser Haupt, Hirt und Weid' ! 
Du bist dein'm Vater gleich. 
In Macht und Herrlichkeit. 

Gott heifger Geist ! Ein Gott 
Mit Vater und dem Sohne, 
Dir sey auch Lob und Preisz, 
Von uns in gleichem Thone : 
Der Du uns heilig machst, 
Und unser Troester heiss'st, 
Und uns den schmalen Weg, 
Zum Leben fuehr'st und weisst. 

O unbegreiflichs Gut! 
O Du Drey-einigs Wesen ! 
Ohn An fang und ohn End : 
HilfF uns, dasz wir genesen ; 
Mach uns zu deinem Lob, 
Stets wuerdig und bereit ! 
Dir sey Lob, Preisz, und Ehr, 
In Zeit und Ewigkeit. 

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Gebenedeyt sey allezeit, 
Gelobet und geehret. 
Die gantze heilige Dreyheit, 
Die, wie die Schrifft uns lehret, 
Eins Wesens ist, Eine Gottheit, 
Und unzertheilte Einigkeit, 
In gleicher Macht und Ehren. 

Der Vater ist ein wahrer Gott, 

Im Wesen zu bekennen. 

Der Sohn Den Er gebohren hat, 

Ist wahrer Gott zu nennen. 

Desgleichen der Heilige Geist, 

Ein wahrer Gott auch ist und heist: 

Drey Namen nur Ein Wesen. 

Also wird von dem Vater, Gott, 
Gantz wohl und recht bekennet, 
Dasz Er sey der gebohren hat: 
Auch wird der Sohn genennet, 
Ein Gott der da gebohren ist, 
Im Anfang vor ewiger Frist, 
Gleicher Natur und Wesens. 

Vater und Sohn in Einigkeit 

Sind gleicher Gott im Wesen : 

Der Heirg Geist auch in diesen Beyd, 

Gleicher Gott ist gewesen : 

So bleibets auch zu ew'ger Frist : 

Doch der wahr' Grott nur Einer ist, 

Ein Gott und nicht drey Goetter. 

Eja, so lasst uns nun zugleich, 
Dem Herren auch lobsingen, 
Der sein Thron hat im Himmelreich ; 
Lob und Danck vor Ihn bringen. 
Lasst uns Ihm froelich singen gem, 
Als unsren Gott und Herm Ihn ehr'n, 
Der hoch im Himmel wohnet. 

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O Du wahr goettliche Dreyheit, 

Die anzubeten wuerdig! 

O du heilige Einigkeit, 

Die zu verehren billig, 

Durch Dich, du wahre Ewigkeit! 

Sind wir geschaffen in der Zeit, 

Als ein Werck deiner Haende. 

Durch Dich sind wir erloeset auch, 
Du hoechste Lieb und Guete, 
Aus allem Leyd und Ungemach, 
WoUest dein Volck behueten ; 
Beschuetze es und mach es heil, 
Richts auf, zu kommen zum Erbthdl, 
Und mach es rein von Suenden. 

Herr Gott! Der Du allmaechtig bist, 
Dich wir ehm und anbeten. 
Wir singen Dir zu dieser Frist, 
Mit Dancken vor Dich tretten : 
Dir sey Gloria, Lob und Ehr, 
Von jetzt fortan und immer mehr, 
Bisz in Ewi^eit, Amen. 

My Saviour, Lord of all, 
I heard Thy loving call. 

Thy call for me. 
What wilt Thou have me do, 
All, all life's journey through? 
I consecrate anew 

My all to Thee. 

"Go, take my bread and feed 
My brethren — ^those in need — 

Nor let one die. 
I am with you alway," 
I heard Thy dear voice say. 
"Thy word I shall obey". 

Was my reply. 

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Hence I shall leave those near, 
My parents, brethren dear, 

And sail away. 
Some day I hope to meet. 
Some day I hope to greet 
All, at the Master's feet, 

To stay for aye. 

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Christian August Salig: Vollstdndige Historic der Augspurg- 

ischen Confession, Halle, 1735. 
Johann Philip Fresenius: Bewdhrte Nachrichten. Frankfurt, 

Erlduterung fUr Herrn Caspar Schwenkfeld und die Zugethanen 

seiner Lehre, Jauer, 1771. Second edition. Sumnjrtaun, 

Hermann Adelbert Daniel: Thesaurus Hymnologicus. Leip- 
zig 1855-56. 
A. F. H. Schneider : Zur Literatur der Schwenkfeldischen Lie- 

derdichter bis Daniel Sudermann. Berlin, 1857. 
Oswald Kadelbach: Ausfuehrliche Geschichte Kaspar von 

Schwenkfelds und der Schwenkfelder, Lauban, i860. 
Hoffmann von Fallersleben : Geschichte des deutschen Kirchen- 

liedes. Hannover, 1861. 
Philipp Wackemagel : Das Deutsche Kirchenlied von der dltes- 

ten Zeit bis su Anfang des siebzehnten Jahrhunderts. 5 

vols. Leipzig, 1864-77. 
Emil Koch: Geschichte des Kirchenlieds und Kirchengesangs. 

Stuttgart, 1866-76. 
Catherine Winkworth : Christian Singers of Germany, London, 

Richard Bingham: Hymnologia Christiana Latina, London, 

F. A. March : Latin Hymns, with English Notes. New York, 

1875 and 1883. 
A. F. W. Fischer: Kirchenlieder-Lexicon, Gotha, 1878. 
C. Heydrick : The Schwenkf elders: An Historical Sketch, In 

Genealogical Record of the Descendants of the Schwenk- 
feld ers, Manayunk, 1879. 
J. H. Dubbs : Early German Hymnology of Pennsylvania, In 

Reformed Quarterly Review (1882). 
C. R. Hildebum: A Century of Printing, The Issues of the 

Press in Pennsylvania, 1685-1784. Philadelphia, 1885-86. 
J. E. Prescott: Christian Hymns and Hymn Writers, Cam- 
bridge, 1886. 
W. Garrett Horder : The Hymn Lover. London, 1889. 


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S. W. Duffield: The Latin Hymn^writers and Their Hymns. 
Edited and completed by Prof. R. E. Thompson, D. D. 
New York, 1889. 

John Julian: A Dictionary of Hymnology. New Yoric, 1893. 

O. Seidensticker : First Century of German Printing in Amer- 
ica. Philadelphia, 1893. 

J. Taylor Hamilton : Some Moravian Hymn Writers. {Mora- 
vian Visitor, Vol. 3, No. 7.) Easton, 1896. 

S. W. Pennypacker: The Settlement of Germantown. Phila- 
delphia, 1899. 

M. D. Learned: Historische Anmerkungen. In Americana 
Germanica. Vol. IL, No. i. 

J. Taylor Hamilton : History of the Moravian Church. Bethle- 
hem, 1900. 

H. W. Kriebel : The Schwenkf elders in Pennsylvania. Lancas- 
ter, 1904. 

Corpus Schwenckfeldianorum, Volume L Leipzig, 1907. 

Hallesche Nachrichten. (1750 et seq.) 

Blatter fiir Hyntnologie. 

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Americana Germanica 


Literary, Ltngnlstlc and Other Cnltnral Relations of 
Germany and America 



University of Pennsylvania 


H. C. G. Brandt 

Julius Goebel 

W. H. Carpenter 

J. T. Hatfield 

W. H. Carruth 

W. T. Hewett 

Hermann Collitz 


Starr W. Cutting 

Hugo K. Schilling 

Daniel K. Dodge 

H. Schmidt-Wartenberg 

A. B. Faust 

Hermann Schoenfeld 

KuNo Francke 

Calvin Thomas 

Adolph Gerber 

H. S. White 

Henry Wood 



Uerlin New York 












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